Download MLAB 1415- Hematology Keri Brophy-Martinez Hematopoiesis

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MLAB 1415- Hematology
Keri Brophy-Martinez
 Hematopoiesis
 Process of blood cell production, development and
 Formation and development usually occurs in the
bone marrow.
Allows hematopoietic system to respond to stimuli such
as infection, bleeding, or hypoxia by increasing
production of cell line needed.
Hematopoietic Precursor Cells
Stem Cells/
Progenitor Cells
Maturing Cells
0.5% of total
hematopoietic precursors
3% of total hematopoietic
>95% of total
hematopoietic precursors
Population size stable
Population amplified by
Population amplified by
Not morphologically
Not morphologically
Morphologically recognizable
Multilineage differentiation
Committed cells
Cell Growth Factors
 Cytokines
Growth factors secreted by cells for the purpose of cell-tocell communication
They stimulate the pluripotential stem cells to proliferate
and differentiate.
GF’s must be present to “grow” hematopoietic precursor
 Cytokines
 Include interleukins, lymphokines, monokines, interferons, chemokines
and colony stimulating factors
Colony Stimulating Factors or CSF
 These regulate blood cell development. CSF’s are being
synthetically manufactured to treat diseases.
 Examples
 G-CSF: Stimulate granulocyte production, Used to treat
cancer and AIDS patients with low WBC. Trade name is
 GM-CSF - Stimulate granulocyte-macrophage production,
Used to treat cancer patients with low WBC. Trade name
is Leukine.
 EPO - Stimulate erythrocyte production, Used to treat
chronic anemia caused by renal failure, increase RBC prior
to surgery which may cause blood loss, illegally by athletes
to boost performance. Trade name is Epogen or Procrit.
Review of Cell Morphology
Cell Morphology
 Cell Membrane
Outer boundary of the cell
Allows passage of nutrients, ions and
information between cytoplasm and the
Location of surface markers
Phospholipid bilayer
Cell Membrane: Phospholipid Bi-layer
Cellular Components
 Cytoplasm: Location of metabolic activities
Golgi complex: involved in formation of gamma globulins,
lysosomes, specific granules and other cellular components.
Ribosomes: RNA, synthesize proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum: Communication system with the
nucleus, smooth or rough
Mitochrondria: furnish cell with energy
Lysosomes: granules with hydrolytic enzymes.
Cellular Components
 Nucleus:
Dark staining chromosomal material composed of DNA and
DNA regulates all cellular functions
Pale staining patches rich in RNA, DNA
Nuclear envelope
Double membrane which surrounds the nuclear contents.
General Morphological Changes in
Cell Maturation
 Basophilic
cytoplasm to less
 Reduction in cell
 Reduction in size of
 Condensation of
nuclear chromatin
Nuclear to Cytoplasmic Ratio
 N/C ratio:
Ratio of the size of the nucleus of a cell to the size
of the cytoplasm
N/C ratio decreases with maturity as the nucleus
decreases in size and the cytoplasm becomes
more abundant
Immature “blast” cell has a large nucleus, small
amount of cytoplasm. N/C ratio is high
Lab Method: Wright’s Stain
 Stain used to identify
cells on blood smear
 Eosin is acid stain stains red
 Methylene is basic stain
- stains shades of blue
Staining red
Cluster Designation (CD)
 Cluster Designation (CD) nomenclature
Monoclonal antibodies specific to cell surface markers
Allows for the phenotypic characterization of cells in disease states
Flow cytometry
 Cells labeled with monoclonal antibodies are sorted and
enumerated to identify specific populations of cells.
 Example
 CD4 and CD8
 Markers for helper and cytotoxic T cells
 Monitor progress of HIV infection