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Transcript
Honors Biology Study Guide for Final Exam
Day of Exam ______
Objectives-For the exam, you should be able to:
Nature of Science
 relate the problem solving methods of science to the development of the theory of evolution
 define and identify the control and variable (dependent and independent) in an experiment
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differentiate between theory and hypothesis
organize data into a table or a graph
draw conclusions from a given set of data
Life’s Chemical Basis
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identify parts of an atom
explain the relationships among atoms, molecules, elements and compounds
Explain the difference between isotopes and radioisotopes
Describe the types of chemical bonds (there are 3 types of chemical bonds
Interpret the formulas of chemical compounds and the meaning of chemical equations
Identify the properties of water that make life possible
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Molecules of Life
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describe and compare the structure and function of the four classes of organic compounds and
explain the importance of each in living things
explain the relationship of structure and function in enzymes
describe how mutations can alter a protein’s function
distinguish between synthesis and decomposition reactions in metabolism
How Cells are Put Together
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Explain the three parts of the cell theory
Relate the advances in microscope technology to discoveries about cells
Describe the structure of a cell membrane (including protein- receptors, transporters and
identification)
Identify the function of each organelle in a typical eukaryotic cell
Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structures
Explain the advantages of highly folded membranes in cells
Compare and contrast the structures found in plant and animal cells
How Cells Work
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discuss why organisms need energy and how they obtain it
relate the first and second law of thermodynamics to their implications for living systems
explain how enzymes catalyze chemical reactions and what factors may affect the rate
explain the effects of temperature, pH, salinity and inhibitors on enzyme activity
compare and contrast the different mechanisms for transport of materials across a cell
membrane
distinguish between active and passive transport
describe the relationship between cell size and transport
Where it Starts-Photosynthesis
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identify the plant structures that are involved in photosynthesis
state the importance of photosynthesis
Identify the steps of the light dependent and the light-independent reaction (identify the raw
materials needed to start each phase, know the products made by each phase
Describe the role of pigments (between sun and photosynthesis)
Describe how environmental factors affect the rate of photosynthesis
How Cells release Chemical Energy
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describe the relationship of food molecules to glucose and thus to glycolysis
compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration
describe the three stages of aerobic respiration
identify the raw materials and products of each of these processes: glycolysis, fermentation,
the Krebs cycle and the electron transfer phosphorylation
explain in which part of a cell each stage occurs
discuss the importance of oxygen to the electron transport chain
describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cell respiration
How Cells Reproduce
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explain the factors that causes cells to reproduce
explain what is meant by cell cycle and explain where mitosis fits into the cell cycle
describe and identify the stages of mitosis
compare the processes of cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
compare and contrast mitosis in plants and animal cells
list some problems in cell division when control is lost
Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
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compare and contrast asexual vs. sexual reproduction
explain the effect that meiosis has on chromosome number
identify the stages of meiosis
infer how meiosis leads to variation in a species and the importance/advantage of genetic
diversity
compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis
Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits
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explain the relationship between alleles, genes, and chromosomes
apply the principles of probability to genetics
explain the reasoning that led to the development of Mendel’s principles of dominance,
segregation, and independent assortment
solve genetics problems that involve monohybrid, dihybrid, co-dominance, incomplete
dominance, multiple alleles and sex-linkage
Chromosomes and Human genetics
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distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes
describe the sources of genetic variation
Use a pedigree to trace the family history of a trait
Determine the human genetic disorders that are caused by various patterns of inheritance
Explain how changes in chromosome number can occur and give an example of such a
change
Give examples of genetic disorders and current methods for diagnosis and treatment
DNA Structure and Function
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describe the parts of a nucleotide, and describe how they are linked together to make DNA
explain how DNA is replicated and repaired
relate the concept of the gene to the sequences of nucleotides in DNA
Describe the role of enzymes in DNA replication
Evaluate the importance of correcting DNA replication errors
From DNA to Proteins
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explain the connection between DNA and RNA in protein synthesis
explain the reasoning that led to the discovery of the triplet base code
identify the stages of transcription
summarize the events that occur in RNA processing
describe the stages of translation
explain the nature of mutations and their role in genetic variation
Processes of Evolution
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compare and contrast the differing views on how species might have changed and emerged
summarize Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection
explain the role of natural selection in convergent and divergent evolution
Evolutionary Patterns, Rates and Trends
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Cite what is generally accepted as evidence that supports evolution by natural selection
Explain how observations from fossils, comparative morphology and comparative
biochemistry are used to reconstruct the past
define homologous, analogous, and vestigial structures and give examples of each
The Origin and Early Evolution of Life
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describe how life might have spontaneously arisen on Earth
analyze the early experiments that support the concept of life on earth
evaluate and compare hypotheses about the origin of life on earth, citing evidence where
possible
identify the probable characteristics of early life forms
describe the origins of cells and organelles
Classification and Diversity
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discuss the difficulty of defining a species and explain the biological meaning of species
explain the reasons for binomial nomenclature
Chapter 39-42 Ecology
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know the definition of the key terms
there will be questions on ecosystem services, nutrient cycles and flow of energy.