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Transcript
1. ------IND- 2016 0643 HU- EN- ------ 20161215 --- --- IMPACT
Impact assessment concerning the amendment of Government Decree No 66/2012 of 2
April 2012 on activities that can be carried out in relation to narcotic drugs,
psychotropic substances and new psychoactive substances, the inclusion of these
substances in schedules and the amendment of such schedules
The following rows 109–121 are added to the table under ‘B) SCHEDULE OF
PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES’, sub-heading ‘Schedule 1 of psychotropic substances
(P1)’ of Annex 1 to Government Decree No 66/2012 of 2 April 2012:
[1
Official name/or other
name or abbreviation, or
way of writing often used
abroad/
Chemical name]
‘
109.
4-benzylpiperidine
4-(phenylmethyl)piperidine
110.
3,4methyl-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-[piperidin-2-yl]acetate
dichloromethylphenidate
/ 3,4-CTMP
111.
A-836,339
N-[3-(2-methoxyethyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylidene]2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane- carboxamide
112.
MXP,
methoxyphenidine, 2MeO-diphenidine
1-[1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine
113.
3F-phenmetrazine, meta- 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine
fluoro- phenmetrazine,
meta-F-phenmetrazine
114.
N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N- N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-(1-pentyl-1H-indol(1-methylethyl)-2-(13-yl)-4-thiazol-methanamine
pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-4thiazol-methanamine
115.
N,N-diethyl-2-(1-pentyl- N,N-diethyl-2-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-4-thiazol1H-indol-3-yl)-4-thiazol- methanamine
methanamine
116.
alpha-PBT; alfa-PBT; a- 2-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-(thiophen-2-yl)butan-1-one
PBT; αPyrrolidinobutiothiophen
1
one
117.
Diclazepam, 2Chlorodiazepam, Ro53448
7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H- 1,4benzodiazepin-2-one
118.
Diphenidine, 1,21-(1,2-Diphenylethyl)piperidine
diphenylethylpiperidine;
DPD; 1,2-DEP; DIPH
119.
MTTA; MTA;
Mephtetramine
2-[(Methylamino)methyl]-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one
120.
Nitracaine
3-(Diethylamino)-2,2-dimethylpropyl 4-nitrobenzoate
121.
EG-018
(naphthalen-1-yl) (9-pentyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-methanone
”
109.
4-benzylpiperidine
4-(phenylmethyl)piperidine
It is a stimulant with a euphoric effect and an analogue of the stimulant piperidine. It acts as a
monoamine releasing agent with high selectivity for releasing dopamine, which may lead to
addiction. Its overdose may induce psychosis. It can be substituted for amphetamine and
methylphenidate.
110.
3,4-dichloromethylphenidate/
3,4-CTMP
methyl-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-[piperidin-2yl]acetate
It is a chemical analogue of the stimulant piperidine. With pharmacological properties similar
to methylphenidate, it acts as a monoamine releasing agent with high selectivity for releasing
dopamine, which may lead to addiction. It is a stimulant with a euphoric effect, which
effectively boosts the intersynaptic levels of the noradrenaline (effective reuptake inhibitor),
and can presumably cause addiction. Its overdose may induce psychosis. It can be substituted
for methylphenidate and amphetamine. Since it is an effective stimulant, its side effects may
trigger irritability, aggression and psychosis. As a somatic effect, it can cause
vasoconstriction. Its effects are similar to those of MDMA. This compound is defined by
literature as a psychostimulant. Its effect is approximately seven times stronger than
methylphenidate (Ritalin). It increases the levels of dopamine and noradrenalin, thereby
producing a euphoric effect, decreasing appetite and causing insomnia. Withdrawal symptoms
may occur when users stop taking the drug.
111.
A-836,339
N-[3-(2-methoxyethyl)-4,5-dimethyl-1,3-thiazol-2ylidene]- 2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide
2
This compound acts as a potent synthetic agonist of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor with a high
binding affinity (0.64 nM). Regular stimulation of this receptor causes addiction in 6–10 % of
cases. It is especially selective for the CB1 receptor (>200) and has a highly lipophilic nature.
It can induce psychotic visual and auditory hallucinations. Its use can lead to comprehension
difficulties and mood swings. Administration thereof may cause sedation, respiratory
depression, hypotension, hypothermia, vomiting, tachycardia, extrapyramidal movement
disorder and hyperkinesia. Its analgesic effect was studied in animal experiments, while it was
also tested to detect the CB2 receptor in PET testing during animal experiments.
112.
MXP, methoxyphenidine, 2MeO-diphenidine
1-[1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-2-phenylethyl]piperidine
Similar to ketamine and PCP, it is a dissociative compound potent on the NMDA receptor. It
can be assumed that it boosts dopamine concentration similar to those above in the nucleus
accumbens, which may lead to addiction. It is accompanied by intensely dissociative and
disorientating hallucinations and abnormal movements. Symptoms of intoxication similar to
PCP, hypertension, tachycardia, perceptual malfunction, hallucinations, agitation, confusional
state, somnolence, occasionally comatose state, nystagmus, opisthotonus, amnesia, urinary
retention and grand mal seizures have been reported. While under its influence, users'
behaviour may be reckless and they may take excessive risks. According to literature, it is a
hallucinogenic compound referred to as a ‘designer drug’ on the Internet. Several deaths have
been reported following its administration.
113. 3F-phenmetrazine, meta-fluorophenmetrazine, meta-Fphenmetrazine
2-(3-fluorophenyl)-3-methylmorpholine
It is the fluorinated analogue of the phenmetrazine that is similar to amphetamine but has a
somewhat less stimulating effect. Regular administration can lead to addiction. It increases
the levels of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in the intersynaptic space, producing a
euphoric effect. The substance can increase anxiety and sexual urges while speeding up
associations – accompanied by several somatic symptoms (increased blood pressure,
increased heart rate, increased body temperature, etc.), which can therefore lead to impaired
judgement, behavioural problems, comprehension difficulties and mood swings, or even sleep
disorders and loss of appetite. It can lead to abuse and harmful effects equivalent to those of
stimulants similar to amphetamine. Its overdose may induce psychosis.
114.
N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-(1methylethyl)-2-(1-pentyl-1Hindol-3-yl)-4-thiazolmethanamine
N-(2-methoxyethyl)-N-(1-methylethyl)-2-(1-pentyl1H-indol-3-yl)-4-thiazol-methanamine
It is the same as the PTI-2 compound, which is a synthetic cannabinoid with a structure based
on an indole ring similar to PTI-1 containing a thiazole group selective for the CB1 receptor.
Similarly to JWH-018, it is a potent CB1 agonist. As a CB1 agonist, it can theoretically cause
addiction. Administration thereof may cause sedation, respiratory depression, hypotension,
hypothermia, vomiting, tachycardia, extrapyramidal movement disorder and hyperkinesia. Its
3
use can lead to comprehension difficulties and mood swings, which can presumably cause
impaired judgement and behavioural problems. It can induce psychotic visual and auditory
hallucinations.
115.
N,N-diethyl-2-(1-pentyl-1Hindol-3-yl)-4-thiazolmethanamine
N,N-diethyl-2-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-4-thiazolmethanamine
Similarly to JWH-018, this compound is a synthetic cannabinoid and acts as a potent synthetic
agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Regular stimulation of this receptor causes addiction
in 6–10 % of cases. High dosage can typically trigger cannabis effects together with
comprehension difficulties and mood swings. It can induce psychotic visual and auditory
hallucinations. With an indole-based thiazole structure, PTI-1 is the analogue of the PTI-2
compound.
116. alpha-PBT; alfa-PBT; a-PBT; αPyrrolidinobutiothiophenone
2-(Pyrrolidin-1-yl)-1-(thiophen-2-yl)butan-1-one
It is a synthetic cathinone, the structural analogue of α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP) that
has a thiofuran group in place of the phenyl group. It appeared on the market as a substitute
for α-PVP. Being a structural analogue of α-PVP, it can likewise cause stimulation of the
central nervous system, agitation, aggression, psychotic symptoms and cardiotoxic effects.
Higher doses can lead to motor restlessness, paranoia and hallucinations. An NDRI
mechanism of action can be assumed, which makes it related to MDPV with an effect that
mobilises dopamine, which can cause addiction. It produces effects similar to several
substances listed in psychotropic schedules (e.g. amphetamine, cathine, cathinone).
117. Diclazepam, 2-Chlorodiazepam,
Ro5-3448
7-chloro-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro2H- 1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
It is a benzodiazepine designer drug and an analogue of diazepam. However, according to
literature, its effect is almost 10 times stronger than that of diazepam. It has a sedato-hypnotic
effect, depressing the central nervous system. It can also relieve anxiety and cause sedative,
highly anticonvulsant and highly anaesthetic effects, and amnesia while impairing judgement.
Even small doses can abnormally affect motor coordination. One consumer claimed on the
Internet that following administration he ‘apathetically laid around for hours, and was not
bothered at all’. As a result of accumulation due to the prolonged half-life of the parent
compound and the active metabolites, the risk of overdose is high. Similarly to other
benzodiazepines, it can cause addiction, while regular administration can lead to significant
physical and mental dependence.
118.
Diphenidine, 1,2diphenylethylpiperidine; DPD;
1,2-DEP; DIPH
1-(1,2-Diphenylethyl)piperidine
4
This compound is an antagonist blocking the NMDA receptor, and thus it is a dissociative
anaesthetic similar to ketamine and phencyclidine (PCP). This compound can produce several
physical and mental effects (sensational and perceptual malfunctions, memory impairment,
depression of the central nervous system, euphoria, hallucinations, depersonalisation,
neurotoxic symptoms), and can therefore significantly alter judgement and behaviour.
According to literature, smaller doses have a stimulating effect, whereas higher doses make
the consumer perceive bizarre phenomena as if they were having an out-of-body experience
while even losing control of their behaviour. Doses of over 100 mg inevitably cause
dissociative effects; due to these effects, the drug can cause addiction, which can lead to
abuse. In Sweden, there were 9 cases of intoxication related to this compound, and there have
been many seizures throughout Europe.
119.
MTTA; MTA; Mephtetramine
2-[(Methylamino)methyl]-3,4-dihydronaphthalen1(2H)-one
This compound is a selective norepinephrine receptor inhibitor, whose structure can be
derived from both cathinone and ethylone, being the substituted analogue of each. These are
amphetamine-type stimulants. Users also mention stimulating effects and abnormal vision.
Being a stimulant, it can cause stimulation of the central nervous system, and thus change
behaviour, judgement and comprehension. Based on seizures and other online websites for
users, it can mostly be found together with other psychoactive compounds.
120.
Nitracaine
3-(Diethylamino)-2,2-dimethylpropyl 4nitrobenzoate
It has a structure similar to dimethocaine listed in Schedule P, thus it is a local anaesthetic
with a cocaine-like effect, which presumably blocks the dopamine transporter. The latter
mechanism of action makes users prone to becoming quickly and highly addicted. Since it
increases the central catecholamine (dopamine and noradrenaline) tone, it has an especially
stimulating effect. The substance causes stimulation of the central nervous system, and thus
changes behaviour, judgement and comprehension.
121.
EG-018
(naphthalen-1-yl) (9-pentyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)methanone
This compound is a carboxy-naphthoylindole derivative with a structure similar to JWH-018
listed in Schedule P, but it nevertheless differs from it because it contains a carbazole ring
instead of an indole ring system. Due to its structure, it acts as an agonist of the cannabinoid
receptor. It can have an effect on the central nervous system similar to JWH-018. It causes
hallucinations, whose KIR effect can change judgement and comprehension, leading to
significant changes in behaviour. Cases of poisoning have been reported from Germany.
5