Lecture 3 - personal.kent.edu
... VI. Tolerance
A. Cross tolerance
B. Tolerance develops to some chars (effects) but not others
C. Types of tolerance
1. decreased drug binding (sequestering)
2. binding has less effect
3. membrane loses permeability
4. tolerance due to learning
-conditioned compensatory responses
VII. Withdrawal and ...
... The preserved sheep
brains we used in
class were missing
this tough exterior
Psychoactive drugs • Drugs which affect mental processes • May be
... • A 4th way in which psychoactive drugs
can affect brain functioning:
involves disruption of the mechanisms by
which neurotransmitters are deactivated
• Neurotransmitters normally have only limited
period of time to bind to receptors
• Shortly after being released
• will either be broken down by en ...
Week Three Slides
... increase number of action
Also binds to receptors on axon
terminals in nucleus accumbens to
release more dopamine with each
Neurotransmission in the CNS
... • ↓ of dopamine levels is a contributing factor
in parkinson,s disease .
Treatment by increasing dopamine content.
... B) Myelin: saltatory conduction for fast signals
3. Synapses: Communication between neurons
B) chemical synapses
4. Post-synaptic potentials
A) EPSP & IPSP
B) Neuronal decisions via summation
C) Ionic vs metabolic synapses
5. Presynaptic potentials
A) Autoreceptors and pre-syna ...
... 3. Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, temp regulation
and sleep. Inhibitory or excitatory
Located in the brain stem, cerebellum, pineal gland,
and the spinal cord.
Undersupply may lead to depression, sleeping and
Oversupply linked to OCD
• Some drugs block the
• Dopamine receptor antagonists
are used for some diseases
such as Schizophrenia, Bipolar
disorder, nausea and vomiting.
It can also control the
symptoms of hyper
sexuality and increased
... • On the post-synaptic side of the synaptic cleft,
neurotransmitters bind to chemical receptors that
open chemically-gated ion channels.
• Some of these ion channels are K+ channels,
which allow K+ ions to leave the cell. This has the
effect of hyperpolarizing the area, which inhibits
the post-synap ...
... • When neurotransmitters are accepted by the
receptors on the receiving neurons their effect
may be either excitatory (making the cell more
likely to fire) or inhibitory (making the cell less
likely to fire).
• Neurotransmitters that are not accepted by the
receptor sites must be removed from the
... 3. Any unused NT’s are reabsorbed back into the neuron of
origin (REUPTAKE….RECYCLED to be used again)
Specific NT systems
... • A drug can do only two things, either:
– Increase the effect of neurotransmitter X (agonist)
– Decrease the effect of neurotransmitter X (antagonist)
Thus, in order to understand the action of a ‘drug Y’, we need to
understand the neurochemical system it interacts with.
In other words, we need to ...
... (With the exception of the last question, each question is worth 1 pt. Write your answers for the last questions directly
on the quiz, and hand it in along with your scantron. Be sure to put your name on both the scantron and your quiz!)
1. ___________ refers to the process by which drugs are absorb ...
Chapter 3 Neurons powerpoints
... Laws and implications of action potentials
All or none law: neurons either “fire” an action
potential or they do not; there are no halfway responses
Action potentials do not vary in intensity, either within
the same neuron at different times or across different
answers - UCSD Cognitive Science
-chemical that block or inhibit postsynaptic effects
-example: a choline reuptake blocker
would prevent choline from reentering the cell thereby preventing the
re-synthesis of ACh
Chapter 5 Quantitative and Thought Questions 5.1 Patient A`s drug
... 5.1 Patient A’s drug very likely acts to block phospholipase A 2 , whereas patient B’s drug blocks
lipoxygenase (see Figure 5.12).
5.2 The chronic loss of exposure of the heart’s receptors to norepinephrine causes an up-regulation of
this receptor type (i.e., more receptors in the heart for norepine ...
... A method for its deactivation should exist.
Its application to the postsynaptic membrane should work.
Following stimulation of the presynaptic cell, it should be present in the synapse.
Acetylcholine - Deactivation
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs affect cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they influence behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology focuses on the study of how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependence and addiction affect the human brain. Molecular neuropharmacology involves the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions, with the overall goal of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function. Both of these fields are closely connected, since both are concerned with the interactions of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, neurohormones, neuromodulators, enzymes, second messengers, co-transporters, ion channels, and receptor proteins in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Studying these interactions, researchers are developing drugs to treat many different neurological disorders, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, psychological disorders, addiction, and many others.