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The cells and tissues that recognize and attack foreign
substances in the body
Causes of Disease
 Noninfectious Disease: Cannot be spread from one
individual to another
 Infectious Disease: Caused by a pathogen and can be
spread from one individual to another
 Pathogen: A microorganism, a virus, or a protein that
causes a disease
Pathways to Pathogens
 Air
 Contaminated Objects
 Person to person
 Animals
 Food and Water
Putting Pathogens in their place
 Pasteurization
 Vaccines & Immunity
 Antibiotics
 Immunity: The ability to resist or to recover from an
infectious disease
Cells of the Immune System
 Macrophages: Engulfs pathogens and other materials
 T cell: Coordinates the immune system and attacks
many infected cells
 B cell: A white blood cell that makes antibodies
 Antibody: A protein made by B cells that binds to a
specific antigen.
 Antigen: Substances that stimulate an immune
Memory B Cells
 A B cell that responds to an antigen more strongly
when the body is reinfected with an antigen than it
does during its first encounter with the antigen.
 Fevers of a couple degrees help immune cells
reproduce and help your body fight infections
 Fevers more than a couple degrees can be dangerous
Challenges to the Immune System
 Allergies (When the immune system overreacts to
antigens that are not dangerous to the body.
 Autoimmune diseases (A disease in which the
immune system attacks the organism’s own cells; ex:
rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis)
 Cancer (A disease in which the cells begin dividing at
an uncontrolled rate and become invasive)
 AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome); When
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) kills helper T
cells. People with AIDS rarely die from AIDS itself,
rather from other diseases they cant fight off)