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Natural Selection
Evolution by Natural Selection
Standard 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms
SC.912.L.15.13: Describe the conditions required for natural
selection, including: overproduction of offspring, inherited variation,
and the struggle to survive, which result in differential reproductive
The scientific theory of evolution is the fundamental
concept underlying all of biology.
The scientific theory of evolution is supported by
multiple forms of scientific evidence.
Organisms are classified based on their evolutionary
Natural selection is a primary mechanism leading to
evolutionary change.
Learning Outcomes:
Using the beans and various utensils to
“capture food”, students will model natural
selection as proposed by Charles Darwin.
 Using the data collected, students will infer
what will happen to animals that cannot
compete as well as with other animals that in
the wild.
Evolution by Natural Selection
Darwin published On the Origin of
Species in 1859. In the book, Darwin
describes and provides evidence for his
explanation of how evolution occurs. He
called this process natural selection
because of its similarities to artificial
Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection can be
summed up as follows:
More offspring are produced than can
survive to reproduce. There is competition
for limited resources, or a struggle for
Individuals exhibit variation in their traits
and some of these differences can be
passed on to their offspring.
Inherited traits that increase an
organism’s ability to survive and
reproduce are called adaptations.
Differences among adaptations affect an
individual’s fitness—the ability to survive
and reproduce in a specific environment.
Only the fittest organisms live to
reproduce and pass on their adaptive
traits to offspring. This is known as the
survival of the fittest.
populations continue to evolve as they
become better adapted, or as their
environment changes.