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Chapters 13,14, & 15
Earth has millions of other kinds of organisms of every imaginable shape, size, and
The variety of living things is called ___________________________.
How did all these different organisms arise?
How are they all related?
Evolution = ____________________
o All living things share a common ancestor.
o We can draw a Tree of Life to show how every species is related.
Evolution: ________________________; the process by which modern species
_______________________________________________ (common ancestors).
Evolution… theory or fact??
o It’s _________!
o The theory of evolution is an ______________________ of HOW evolution
happens. Our understanding of this process is always ___________________.
o Evolution is also a ___________ due to the huge amount of indisputable
____________________for its occurrence.
Lamarck believed genes were ____________________________________, and the
use or disuse of body parts.
He thought that if an animal ______________________a characteristic during its
lifetime, it could _____________________ to its offspring (Inheritance of acquired
Hence giraffes got their long necks through ___________________________
_______________ to reach high branches.
Charles Darwin
o A young, British ____________________interested in biological
__________________and how it occurred.
o Toured the world from 1831-1836 on board the
HMS ______________.
o Took lengthy ____________________ of the
different species found on the
___________________ Islands. Mainly of the
different _________ of __________, and shapes
of _______________shells found on various
o Published a book on his findings in 1859: The
________________________ by means of Natural
Natural Selection Occurs under 5 main conditions:
The ______________________ to the environment survives to ________________.
Proposed by Charles Darwin as the driving _________ behind the theory of evolution.
(1) Variation: _______________________________ within a species caused by mutations,
and sexual reproduction.
Adaptation: A variation that ________________an organism’s ability to
___________________and reproduce.
Ex: Organisms of the same species that are faster, have bigger claws, or are
better camouflaged are likely to survive ______________.
(2) The _________________________________- Members of a population must compete
for _________, __________, and other limited necessities of life;
(3) competition.
(4) Overproduction: _____________ offspring, must compete, some survive.
(5) Survival of the fittest- Those most genetically “______” survive.
Caused by __________________+ _________________________+
_______________________ + the _________________for existence
Darwin’s Conclusions:
1. The diverse forms of life have arisen by ________________with
______________________________ from ancestral species.
2. The mechanism of modification has been _________________________________
working over _________________________________________.
A Summary of Natural Selection:
Only _____________________________ individuals survive and reproduce. From generation
to generation, populations continue to change as they become better adapted, or as their
environment changes.
Darwin also proposed that, over many generations, adaptations could cause successful
species to evolve into a ___________________________.
Speciation: The formation of a new species.