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7.1 and 7.2 Review Creation of an Arab Empire Abu Bakr Wealthy merchant and Muhammad’s father-in-law was to be Caliph. Under his leadership the Islamic movement began to grow. Jihad: “struggle in the way of God” At Yarmuk, in 636, the Muslims defeated the Byzantine army. Four years later they took Syria. By 642, areas of northern Africa had been added to the new Arab Empire. Arab Rule Problems with succession Tolerant; allowed local officials to continue to gov.; conquered were NOT forced to convert to Islam, they required to be loyal and pay taxes. The Umayyads 661 a general named Mu’awiyah, of Syria became caliph. used forced only when necessary Made the caliph (called the caliphate) hereditary Moved the capital from Madinah to Damascus*, in Syria. Umayyad Conquests Converted Berbers (pastoral people of norther Africa) By 725 most of Spain was under Muslim control. In 732, Arab forces were defeated at the Battles of Tours in Gaul. A Split in Islam… *Sunni and Shi’a* *Battle of Tours* By 725 most of Spain had come a Muslim state with its center at Cordoba. In 732 Muslim forces were defeated at the Battle of Tours in Gaul (modern France) Arab expansion in Europe had come to a halt Pair-Share: How would Europe have changed if the Muslims won the Battle of Tours? The Abbasid Dynasty Resentment of Umayyad rule, led to Abu al-Abbas to overthrow Umayyad dynasty and set up the Abbasid dynasty until 1258. Their Rule: Capital city was at Baghdad (good place for it!) New heroes were judges, merchants, and govt officials. All Muslims, regardless of ethnic background could hold both civil and military offices. Harun al-Rashid Golden Age Known for his charity and support for artists and writers and learning. Growing prosperity; Baghdad became the center of trade. The Abbasid Dynasty The Changing Role of the Caliph: More regal Prime minister, called a Vizier, advised the caliph. The caliph didn’t attend the meetings of the counsel, but sat behind a screen. He would listen and then whisper his orders to the vizier. Decline of the Abbasid Fighting over succession. Financial corruption. Shortage of qualified Arabs for key positions in the arm and civil service. Rulers of the provinces began to break away and establish independent dynasties. Spain established their own caliphate. Morocco, too, with the Fatimids in Egypt, with its capital at Cairo, was one of these. The Seljuk Turks The Fatimids had a key position on the Nile; trade was prosperous around the Red Sea, Mediterranean, and beyond! They hired non-native soldiers to fight for them. One of these groups was the Seljuk Turks. Nomad people from Central Asia. They had converted to Islam and gradually moved into Iran and Armenia; growing stronger! By 1055, a Turkish leader had taken Baghdad and took the position of Sultan. The Caliph was still the religious leader, but the Seljuk Turks held the real military and political power. The Crusades In 1071, the Byzantine Empire challenged the Turks, lost, and left most of the Anatolian Peninsula under Turk control. The Byzantine Empire asked for help…. Emperor Alexius I’s plea for help began the Crusades in 1096. Christian states were successful at first, but a Muslim ruler named Saladin, now controlled Egypt (had ended the Fatamid dynasty), and Syria. In 1187, Saladin invaded Jerusalem* and defeated the Christian forces there. The Mongols Out of the Gobi came a very militaristic people in the 13th century. Brutal! Their goal was to create terror in people. Genghis Khan’s army spread across central Asia. Other Khans seized Persia and Mesopotamia. Mongols had a strong hatred of Islam. The Mongols advanced as far as the Red Sea. Center of the Islamic civilization shifted to Cairo, in Egypt.