Download 7.21 Islam 570–1100

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Islam 570–1100
Spread of Islam to 1250
© Diagram Visual Information Ltd.
Changes to the updated edition © 2006 Infobase Publishing.
c. 570 Birth of Muhammad
● 622 The Hegira: Muhammad’s flight to
Medina begins Islamic era
● 624 Muslims defeat the Meccans at Battle of Badr
● 630 Mecca conquered by Muhammad
● 632 Death of Muhammad; Abu Bakr succeeds as
first caliph
● 633–637 Arabs conquer Syria and Iraq
● 634 Death of Abu Bakr; Umar succeeds
● 636 Battle of Yarmuk gains Palestine and Syria
● 637 Battle of Qadisiya gains Iraq
● 639–642 Arabs conquer Egypt
● 640–643 Arabs conquer Persia
● 644 Murder of Umar; Uthman succeeds
● 650 Official version of Koran established under Uthman
● 656 Murder of Uthman, ‘Ali succeeds; first civil war in Islam
● 656 “Battle of the Camel”: ‘Ali wins
● 657 Battle of Siffin ends in draw
● 659 Arbitration between ‘Ali and Muawiyah
● 659 Kharijites (seceders) subdued by ‘Ali
● 661 Murder of ‘Ali; succession of Muawiyah begins Umayyad dynasty with Damascus as capital
● 670 Great Mosque of Qayrawan (Kairouan) built in Tunisia
● 685–687 Shi’ite revolt in Iraq; beginning of Shi’ite extremism
● 691 Dome of the Rock built in Jerusalem by Caliph Abd-al-Malik
● 696 Arabic becomes the empire’s official administrative language
● 710–711 Muslims invade Spain and Indus Valley
● 717–718 Muslims fail to capture Constantinople
● 732 Muslim forces halted near Poitiers by Charles Martel
● 750 Abbasid Caliphate founded
● 756–1031 Umayyads rule Muslim Spain from Córdoba
● 762–763 Mansur founds Baghdad as Abbasid capital
● 767 Death of Abu Hanifa, Hanafite School of Law founder
● 785 Great Mosque of Córdoba built by Emir Abd-er-Rahman I
● 786 Accession of Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid courtly life at its best
● 788–922 Morocco independent under Idrisid dynasty
● 795 Death of Anas ibn Malik, Malikite School of Law founder
● 801–909 Aghlabid dynasty independent in Tunisia and Sicily
● 813–833 Reign of Mamun the Great; espousal of Mu’tazilism as the official theology
● 820 Death of Shafi’i, Shafi’ite School of Law founder
● 850 Death of Kindi, first Arabic philosopher
● 855 Death of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Hanabalite School of Law founder
● 870 Death of Bukhari, famed for compendium of Tradition
● 871 Rise of the Saffarids in Persia
● 875 Death of Muslim, famed for compendium of Tradition
● 876 Building of Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo
● 9th century Sharia legal system achieves its maximum development
● 909 Establishment of Shi’ite Fatimid Caliphate in North Africa
● 922 Eexecution of Sufi mystic Hallaj for heresy
● 929 Emir Abd-er-Rahman III of Córdoba adopts title of caliph
● 969–973 Fatimids build Cairo
● 970 Seljuk Turks enter Persia
● 970 Mosque-University of al-Azhar built in Cairo by Fatimids
● c. 1050–1147 Berber Almoravid dynasty rule Northwest Africa
and Spain
● 1055 Seljuk Turks seize Baghdad
● 1067 Ash’arism established as orthodox theology
● 1070–1080 Seljuks capture Asia Minor, Syria, and Palestine
● 1085 Christians seize Toledo and begin Reconquest of Spain
● 1096–1099 First Christian Crusade regains Jerusalem
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