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Transcript
Islamic Expansion
A. Orthodox Caliphs 632-661
1. Abu Bakr = Muhammad’s father-in-law was chosen
to be successor/ called caliph = successor to
Muhammad
2. Omar
3. Uthman
4. Ali
B. Umayyad 661-750
• In 661, general Mu’awiyah became caliph/ was rival
of Ali
• moved capital from Medina to Damascus
• Made the office of caliph hereditary
• 8th century Arabs conquered coast of North Africa
and Spain
• Internal revolts led to split within Islam- sunnis and
shias
C. Abbasid 750-1258
• In 750, Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad
dynasty & founded Abbasid which lasted until 1258
• New capital in Baghdad
• Harun al-Rashid led dynasty through golden age/
known for charity and patronage
• Invasion by Mongols in 1258
D. Seljuk Turks
• Abbasids created a strong army by non-native
soldiers = Seljuk Turks
• Seljuk Turks = nomadic people from central Asia,
converted to Islam
• Took over much of Abbasid empire & captured
Baghdad (1055)
Islamic Civilization
• generally prosperous
• Trade began to prosper during Abassid dynasty
• Large magnificent cities began to
prosper……..Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Cordoba
• Palace & mosques = most impressive buildings
• Fountains, public baths, bazaars
Islamic Society
• Muslims live their lives in accordance with Allah’s
teachings revealed in the Quran
• Islam claims that all people are equal in the eyes of
Allah
• Slaves were not considered equal/Muslims could
not be slaves/ Slaves came from south Africa or
Asia, mostly captives of war/treated pretty well,
many were set free
• Women were not treated equal