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Transcript
The Rise of Islam 600-1200
Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad
•  Most Arabs Settled /
Nomads a minority
–  Caravan cities caused
interaction between
Byzantine / Sasanid
Empires & Ethiopia
•  Nomadic Religions =
Polytheistic
–  Familiar with Judaism,
Christianity & Zoroast.
•  Mecca = Caravan City
–  Between Yemen & Syria
–  Ka’ba = Cubical Shrine w/
idols inside, temple of
Abraham
Muhammad & Foundation of Islam
• 
• 
• 
Orphan born in Mecca
–  Involved in the caravan trade
The ‘Final Prophet’
–  In 610CE received revelations
Submission to God = Salvation
–  622 fled to Medina / Formed a
single community of believers
(umma)
The Succession of the Caliph
–  Abu Bakr (Father-in-law)
•  Standardization: 5 Pillars &
Creation of an Islamic State
–  Civil War over 3rd Caliphate = 3
Rival Sects
•  Sunnis= Abu Bakr
•  Shi’ites=Ali (Muhammad’s
son-in-law & 1st cousin)
•  Kharijite (Militant followers
of Ali)
Islamic Civilization
•  Islamic Law = Shari’a
–  Based on collections of
reports known as Hadith
•  Conversion & Urbanization
were correlated
•  Great Achievements in
Medicine & Astronomy
•  Women= Supposed to live as
Khadija & Fatima
•  Inherit & own prop.
•  Divorce & Remarry
•  Testify in Court
•  Pilgrimage
The Rise & Fall of the Caliphate
632-1258
•  Period of Islamic Conquests 634-711
–  Religious fanaticism, weakness of enemies, talent of
Muslim leaders and camel cavalry!
•  Umayyad & Abbasid Caliphates 661-850
–  Arab Empire (not a Muslim Empire), ruled from
Damascus, Syria
–  Umayyad Overthrown 750 w/ help of Shi’ites.
–  Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 (family of Abbas,
Muhammad’s cousin).
–  Cultural Center of Baghdad, Golden Age of literature &
science. Non-Arab conversion in cosmopolitan centers.
•  Political Fragmentation 850-1050 (Mamluks grew in
power), too diverse of a region to hold under Arab rule as
Islam spread.
•  Attacks = Christian Crusades, Turkish & Mongol Invasions
(Mongols killed final Caliph in 1258)