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Transcript
BEHAVIORAL THEORISTS



IVAN PAVLOV
B.F. SKINNER
A MAJOR PREMISE
AND ORIENTATION
BEHIND
BEHAVIORISM IS
THAT PSYCHOLOGY
SHOULD STUDY
ONLY OBSERVABLE
BEHAVIOR
IVAN PAVLOV


RUSSIAN
PHYSIOLOGIST
HE STUDIED THE
IMPORTANCE OF
SALIVA IN THE
DIGESTIVE
PROCESS OF
DOGS
PSYCHIC REFLEXES



DOGS
RESTRAINED IN
HARNESS
COLLECTED
SALIVA
HE PAIRED MEAT
POWDER WITH
DIFFERENT
STIMULI
IMPLICATIONS OF PAVLOV’S WORK


CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING
PLAYS A KEY
ROLE IN SHAPING
EMOTIONAL
RESPONSES LIKE
FEAR, ANXIETY,
AND PHOBIAS
USED IN
ADVERTISING
B.F. SKINNER



A STRICT
BEHAVIORIST
HE DID NOT
BELIEVE IN
INTERNAL
MENTAL STATES
THE SKINNER BOX
& OPERANT
CONDITIONING
SKINNER’S THEORY



BEHAVIOR IS
INFLUENCED BY
REWARDS AND
PUNSHMENTS
HE TRAINED RATS
TO RESPOND TO
LIGHTS AND
SOUNDS
REINFORCEMENT
APPLICATION OF SKINNER’S WORK



USED IN PRISONS
AND MENTAL
HOSPITALS
REINFORCERS ARE
USED TO PRODUCE
POSITIVE BEHAVIORS
TOKEN ECONOMIES
SHAPE BEHAVIOR
THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH
MASLOW & ROGERS
ABRAHAM MASLOW



HUMANISTS
BELIEVED THAT
PSYCHOANALYSIS
AND BEHAVIORISM ARE
“DEHUMANIZING”
EMPHASIS ON
UNIQUENESS
POSITIVE,
OPTIMISTIC
HUMANS HAVE MANY NEEDS




PEOPLE HAVE MANY NEEDS THAT
COMPETE
BIOLOGICAL MOTIVES
SOCIAL MOTIVES
HUMAN NEEDS ARE ORGANIZED IN
A HIERARCHY
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY



THE NEEDS AT
THE BOTTOM ARE
THE MOST BASIC
(HUNGER)
THE NEXT
LEVEL=SAFETY
NEEDS
NEXT=
BELONGING AND
LOVE
PYRAMID CONTINUED




ESTEEM NEEDS
COGNITIVE NEEDS
AESTHETIC
NEEDS
SELF-ACTUALIZED
APPLICATIONS OF MASLOW’S WORK



IN THE FIELD OF BUSINESS
IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES
CRITICISMS
CARL ROGERS



CLIENT-CENTERED
THERAPY
CCT PROVIDES A
SUPPORTIVE
ENVIRONMENT
IN CCT, THE CLIENT
DETERMINES THE
PACE & DIRECTION
OF THERAPY
WHAT CAUSES ANXIETY?


ANXIETY IS
CAUSED BY
INCONSISTENCY
BETWEEN A
PERSON’S SELFCONCEPT AND
REALITY.
HOW YOU
PERCEIVE
YOURSELF
DO WE NEED CONSTANT APPROVAL FROM OTHERS?



ROGERS BELIEVED
THIS WAS THE ROOT
CAUSE OF CLIENTS'
PROBLEMS
THE CLIENT NEEDS
TO DEVELOP INSIGHT
YOU CAN’T ALWAYS
PLEASE OTHERS
THE THERAPEUTIC CLIMATE


THE PROCESS OF
THERAPY IS LESS
RELEVANT THAN
THE CLIMATE OF
THE THERAPY
THERAPY’S ROLE
QUALITIES OF A GOOD THERAPIST



GENUINENESS
UNCONDITIONAL
POSITIVE REGARD
EMPATHY
THE THERAPEUTIC PROCESS



THE THERAPIST
PROVIDES VERY
LITTLE GUIDANCE
THE THERAPIST
KEEPS ADVICE TO
A MINIMUM
THERAPIST
PROVIDES
FEEDBACK
THE COGNITIVE APPROACH
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
CANNOT BE FULLY
UNDERSTOOD WITHOUT
EXAMINING HOW PEOPLE
ACQUIRE, STORE, AND
PROCESS INFORMATION

ELLIS & PIAGET WERE
INFLUENTIAL COGNITIVE
THINKERS

JEAN PIAGET



CHILD
PSYCHOLOGIST
HE FOUND
ANSWERS TO
HUMAN BEHAVIOR
BY STUDYING
CHILDREN
INFLUENTIAL IN
SCHOOL REFORM
HIS VIEW OF CHILDREN



CHILDREN ARE
NOT “BLANK
SLATES” OR
“EMPTY VESSELS”
CHILDREN INVENT
THEIR OWN LOGIC
OBSERVATION OF
CHILDREN’S
MINDS
LESSONS PIAGET LEARNED FROM CHILDREN



CHILDREN TAKING
IQ TESTS MADE
SIMILAR ERRORS
KNOWLEDGE IS
DISCOVERED BY
OBSERVING A
CHILD’S MIND
KNOWLEDGE
BUILDS AS KIDS
GROW
AN EXPERIMENT



THE PRINCIPLE OF
CONSERVATION
(AGES 5–7)
CHILDREN UNDER
AGE 5 ARE
EGOCENTRIC
BY AGE 7 OBJECT
PERMANENCE IS
RECOGNIZED
STAGE 1: SENSORIMOTOR


SIMPLE MOTOR
RESPONSES TO
SENSORY
STIMULI; NO
CONCEPTION OF
OBJECT
PERMANENCE
USE OF SCHEMAS
STAGE 2: PREOPERATIONAL




AGES 1 ½–7
EXHIBITS
EGOCENTRIC
THINKING
LACKS CONCEPT
OF CONSERVATION
USES SYMBOLS,
WORDS, MENTAL
IMAGES
STAGE 3: CONCRETE OPERATIONS




AGES 7–11
BEGINS TO
UNDERSTAND THE
CONCEPT OF
CONSERVATION
STILL HAS SOME
TROUBLE WITH
ABSTRACT IDEAS
CLASSIFICATION
STAGE 4: FORMAL OPERATIONS




AGES 11–ADULT
UNDERSTANDS
ABSTRACT IDEAS
AND HYPOTHETICAL
SITUATIONS
CAPABLE OF
LOGICAL THINKING
NERVOUS SYSTEM