Download Power Point Slides

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Father absence wikipedia, lookup

Abnormal psychology wikipedia, lookup

Verbal Behavior wikipedia, lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia, lookup

Applied behavior analysis wikipedia, lookup

Psychophysics wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia, lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive science wikipedia, lookup

Classical conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Parent management training wikipedia, lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Descriptive psychology wikipedia, lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia, lookup

Social cognitive theory wikipedia, lookup

Erikson's stages of psychosocial development wikipedia, lookup

Behavior analysis of child development wikipedia, lookup

Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development wikipedia, lookup

Psychosexual development wikipedia, lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia, lookup

Piaget's theory of cognitive development wikipedia, lookup

Developmental psychology wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive development wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
FOUR DEVELOPMENTAL THEMES
 Role of Maturation versus and
Experience
 The Active Versus Passive Role of the
Child
 The Role of Stages
 The Breadth of Focus
Conscious
Ego
Preconscious
Unconscious
Superego
Id
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Psychosexual Stage
Approximate Age
Description
Oral
Birth - 1 year
The mouth is the focus of stimulation and
interaction; feeding and weaning are
central.
Anal
1 - 3 years
The anus is the focus of stimulation and
interaction; elimination and toilet training
are central.
Phallic
3 - 6 years
The genitals (penis, clitoris, and vagina)
are the focus of stimulation; gender role
and moral development are central.
Latency
6 - 12 years
A period of suspended sexual activity;
energies shift to physical and intellectual
activities.
Genital
12 - adulthood
The genitals are the focus of stimulation
with the onset of puberty; mature sexual
relationships develop.
ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES
• Trust vs. Mistrust
Birth – 1 year
• Autonomy vs. Shame and
Doubt
1 - 3 years
• Initiative vs. Guilt
3 - 6 years
• Industry vs. Inferiority
6 - 12 years (Latency Period)
• Identity vs. Role Confusion
12 - 19 years (Adolescence)
• Intimacy v. Isolation
19 – 25 years (Early Adulthood)
• Generativity vs. Stagnation
25 – 50 years (Adulthood)
• Ego Integrity vs. Despair
50 years and older
Illustration of Classical Conditioning
BEFORE CONDITIONING:
(A) Place a nipple in baby's mouth:
Touch of nipple (US) — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
(B) Show baby a bottle with a nipple:
Sight of bottle — — — — — —elicits — — — — — > No sucking (UR)
with nipple (CS)
DURING CONDITIONING:
(C) Show baby the a bottle and place its nipples in baby's mouth.
Repeat a number of times:
Touch of nipple (US) — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
(paired with)
Sight of bottle — — — —elicits — — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
with nipple (CS)
AFTER CONDITIONING
(D) Show baby the bottle with nipple:
Sight of bottle — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR)
with nipple (CS)
Rate of response
Delivered
Withdrawn
Response leads stimulus to be
Increases
Decreases
Positive reinforcement
(Increases behavior
by delivering a
desired stimulus)
Positive punishment
(Decreases behavior
by delivering an
aversive stimulus)
Example:
Infant says, "cookie:
Mother gives praise
Example:
Toddler throws toys
Father yells, "Stop it"
Negative reinforcement
(Increases behavior
by removing an
aversive stimulus)
Negative punishment
(Decreases behavior
by removing a
desired stimulus)
Example:
Child cleans messy room
Parent stops "nagging"
Example:
Teenager out past curfew
Parent grounds teenager
PIAGET’S COGNITIVE STAGES
Sensorimotor
Birth - 2 years
Child develops schemes
primarily through sense and
motor activities
Preoperational
2 – 7 years
Child can think symbolically;
holds egocentric view of the
world
Concrete Operational
7 – 11 years
Child becomes able to
manipulate logical relationships
among concepts but only by
generalizing from concrete
experiences
Formal Operational
11 years - adulthood
Child is able to deal with
abstractions, form hypotheses,
solve problems systematically
PIAGET’S
COGNITIVE
STAGES
PIAGET’S
BASIC
PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
Sensorimotor
Birth - 2 years
 SCHEME: Organized pattern of
Preoperational

Child develops schemes
primarily through sense and
motor activities
thought
or behavior
2 – 7 years
Child can think symbolically;
ASSIMILATION: Person interpretsholds
newegocentric
ideas or
view of the
world
experiences to fit existing schemes
 ACCOMODATION:
Person
Concrete
Operational
7 – 11 years
changes
Childexisting
becomes able to
manipulate logical relationships
schemes to fit new ideas or experiences
among concepts but only by
generalizing from concrete
assimilation
experiences and
 ADAPTION: Interplay between
Formalaccomodation,
Operational
11resulting
years - adulthood
in development
Child is able to deal with
abstractions, form hypotheses,
balance
a person’s
solveof
problems
systematically
 EQUILIBRIUM: Harmonious
schemes and experiences with the environment
An Information-Processing Model of Learning
Control processes
Environmental
stimuli
(input)
Sensory
register
(SR)
Attention
Recognition
Rehearsal
Short-term
memory
(STM)
Response
(output)
Organization
Meaningfulness
Long-term
memory
(LTM)
InRev1
APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
Approach
Characteristics
Biological
Emphasizes activity of the nervous system,
especially of the brain; the action of hormones and other
chemicals; and genetics.
Evolutionary
Emphasizes the ways in which behavior and
mental processes are adaptive for survival.
Psychodynamic
Emphasizes internal conflicts, mostly unconscious, which usually
pit sexual or aggressive instincts against environmental obstacles
to their expression.
Behavioral
Emphasizes learning, especially each person’s experience
with rewards and punishments.
Cognitive
Emphasizes mechanisms through which people
receive, store, retrieve, and otherwise process information.
Humanistic
Emphasizes individual potential or growth and the role of unique
perceptions in guiding behavior and mental processes.