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FOUR DEVELOPMENTAL THEMES Role of Maturation versus and Experience The Active Versus Passive Role of the Child The Role of Stages The Breadth of Focus Conscious Ego Preconscious Unconscious Superego Id Freud's Psychosexual Stages Psychosexual Stage Approximate Age Description Oral Birth - 1 year The mouth is the focus of stimulation and interaction; feeding and weaning are central. Anal 1 - 3 years The anus is the focus of stimulation and interaction; elimination and toilet training are central. Phallic 3 - 6 years The genitals (penis, clitoris, and vagina) are the focus of stimulation; gender role and moral development are central. Latency 6 - 12 years A period of suspended sexual activity; energies shift to physical and intellectual activities. Genital 12 - adulthood The genitals are the focus of stimulation with the onset of puberty; mature sexual relationships develop. ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGES • Trust vs. Mistrust Birth – 1 year • Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1 - 3 years • Initiative vs. Guilt 3 - 6 years • Industry vs. Inferiority 6 - 12 years (Latency Period) • Identity vs. Role Confusion 12 - 19 years (Adolescence) • Intimacy v. Isolation 19 – 25 years (Early Adulthood) • Generativity vs. Stagnation 25 – 50 years (Adulthood) • Ego Integrity vs. Despair 50 years and older Illustration of Classical Conditioning BEFORE CONDITIONING: (A) Place a nipple in baby's mouth: Touch of nipple (US) — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR) (B) Show baby a bottle with a nipple: Sight of bottle — — — — — —elicits — — — — — > No sucking (UR) with nipple (CS) DURING CONDITIONING: (C) Show baby the a bottle and place its nipples in baby's mouth. Repeat a number of times: Touch of nipple (US) — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR) (paired with) Sight of bottle — — — —elicits — — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR) with nipple (CS) AFTER CONDITIONING (D) Show baby the bottle with nipple: Sight of bottle — — — —elicits — — — — — > Sucking reflex (UR) with nipple (CS) Rate of response Delivered Withdrawn Response leads stimulus to be Increases Decreases Positive reinforcement (Increases behavior by delivering a desired stimulus) Positive punishment (Decreases behavior by delivering an aversive stimulus) Example: Infant says, "cookie: Mother gives praise Example: Toddler throws toys Father yells, "Stop it" Negative reinforcement (Increases behavior by removing an aversive stimulus) Negative punishment (Decreases behavior by removing a desired stimulus) Example: Child cleans messy room Parent stops "nagging" Example: Teenager out past curfew Parent grounds teenager PIAGET’S COGNITIVE STAGES Sensorimotor Birth - 2 years Child develops schemes primarily through sense and motor activities Preoperational 2 – 7 years Child can think symbolically; holds egocentric view of the world Concrete Operational 7 – 11 years Child becomes able to manipulate logical relationships among concepts but only by generalizing from concrete experiences Formal Operational 11 years - adulthood Child is able to deal with abstractions, form hypotheses, solve problems systematically PIAGET’S COGNITIVE STAGES PIAGET’S BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Sensorimotor Birth - 2 years SCHEME: Organized pattern of Preoperational Child develops schemes primarily through sense and motor activities thought or behavior 2 – 7 years Child can think symbolically; ASSIMILATION: Person interpretsholds newegocentric ideas or view of the world experiences to fit existing schemes ACCOMODATION: Person Concrete Operational 7 – 11 years changes Childexisting becomes able to manipulate logical relationships schemes to fit new ideas or experiences among concepts but only by generalizing from concrete assimilation experiences and ADAPTION: Interplay between Formalaccomodation, Operational 11resulting years - adulthood in development Child is able to deal with abstractions, form hypotheses, balance a person’s solveof problems systematically EQUILIBRIUM: Harmonious schemes and experiences with the environment An Information-Processing Model of Learning Control processes Environmental stimuli (input) Sensory register (SR) Attention Recognition Rehearsal Short-term memory (STM) Response (output) Organization Meaningfulness Long-term memory (LTM) InRev1 APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY Approach Characteristics Biological Emphasizes activity of the nervous system, especially of the brain; the action of hormones and other chemicals; and genetics. Evolutionary Emphasizes the ways in which behavior and mental processes are adaptive for survival. Psychodynamic Emphasizes internal conflicts, mostly unconscious, which usually pit sexual or aggressive instincts against environmental obstacles to their expression. Behavioral Emphasizes learning, especially each person’s experience with rewards and punishments. Cognitive Emphasizes mechanisms through which people receive, store, retrieve, and otherwise process information. Humanistic Emphasizes individual potential or growth and the role of unique perceptions in guiding behavior and mental processes.