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Climate Change Policy and Action: Supporting the
Role of Local Communities
Susan Stone
Conservation International
August 1, 2012
1. Climate Change Polices: What is the world is doing
about Climate Change?
2. Mitigation and Adaptation Action: How can policy
help to reduce climate change and its impacts?
3. How is the international community supporting
mitigation and adaptation action?
4. How do local stakeholders participate in policy and
decision making
1. Climate Change Polices: What the world is doing
about Climate Change?
Implications of Climate Policy
• Policies are plans of action that countries, regions, and/or
communities agree to follow
• International agreements can set rules that guide actions of
the governments of many countries and their institutions
• Climate mitigation and adaptation policies determine how
much we need to reduce GHG emissions (“targets”) AND what
activities the global community will pursue to achieve
mitigation and adaptation goals
• National policies are also necessary to guide actions within
,,,the process of stopping or
lessening climate change by
reducing greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions that come from
industrial activities and forestry and
agricultural activities
… adjusting to new conditions
that are happening now or may
happen in the future. Both
eco-systems and people need
to adapt to new conditions.
Climate Policy to Action
• Climate mitigation and
adaptation policies
determine how much we
need to reduce GHG
emissions (“targets”) & how
to adjust to a new climate
• AND what activities the
global community will
pursue to achieve mitigation
and adaptation goals
Areas of Action
Reducing Emissions from
Deforestation and
Degradation plus the role of
conservation, sustainable
management of forests and
enhancement of forest
carbon stocks in developing
countries (UNFCCC Decision
2 (COP13)
National Adaption
Programs of Action
National Adaptation Plans
of Action
The Role of the United Nations
• Most international policy, agreements and
conventions are done through the United
Nations (UN).
• Through the UN, countries are working to
agree to provide a response to this global
threat that will impact every country.
Climate Change – early concern
• Studies at Mauna Loa, Hawaii began in 1957
• Climate change discussed on national and international
levels for many years
• 1979 — The first World Climate Conference (WCC) takes
• Climate change first studied
systematically through the
establishment of the
Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988
…to Systematic Study
• Role of IPCC
To assess scientific,
technical and socioeconomic information
relevant for the
understanding of
climate change, its
potential impacts and
options for
adaptation and
United Nations Framework Convention
on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
• The overall policy framework for efforts to address climate
• Adopted at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 together with the
Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) and the Convention to
Combat Desertification (CCD);
• Entered into force on 21 March 1994.
• As of May 2012, UNFCCC has 195 parties.
UNFCCC Core Principles
1. Based on equity and “common but differentiated responsibilities
and respective capabilities”
• i.e., developed countries should take the lead
2. Special consideration for developing countries disproportionately
burdened by climate impacts
3. Precautionary principle to anticipate, prevent or minimize the
causes of climate change
• lack of scientific agreement should not postpone action
4. Countries promote sustainable development and integrate climate
measures into national programs
Key focus of UNFCCC:
build consensus to take joint action
UNFCCC Objective: stabilize the amount of GHG in the atmosphere
– “at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic (humaninduced) interference with the climate
– "such a level should be achieved within
a time-frame sufficient to allow
ecosystems to adapt naturally to
climate change, to ensure that food
production is not threatened and to
enable economic development to
proceed in a sustainable manner.“
UNFCCC: The Actors
Administrative body of the UNFCCC
Countries bound by the Convention
Accredited groups (IGOs, NGOs,
Business Alliances, etc…) allowed to
attend and speak but not to participate
in the decision making
Over 1,409 NGOs and 86 IGOs Over
1,409 NGOs and 86 IGOs are admitted
as observers.
The Parties:
Annex I and Non Annex I
Annex I
Developed Countries +
Economies in Transition
Annex II
Non Annex I
Developing Countries
49 LCDs
Nearly Universal Participation: 195 Parties
Groups of countries with common interests working
on climate change:
 Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS).
 Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
 Group of 77 (G77) plus China
 The European Union
 Umbrella Group: several developed countries, including the US,
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, and Japan
 The Rainforest Coalition, a group of 33 developing countries
with tropical rainforests
The Role of the UNFCCC
The UNFCCC creates a space for governments around the
world to discuss and take action on the challenge posed by
climate change. Within the UNFCCC, governments:
•Gather and share information on greenhouse gas emissions,
national policies and best practices
• Launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas
•Share information and research on adaptation to the impacts of
climate change such as sea level rise, droughts and flooding.
•Support national adaptation planning, including the provision of
financial and technological support to developing countries
Conferences of the Parties (COP)
• Annual meeting of the UNFCCC to assess progress in dealing with
climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the
Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for
developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
• The First COP was in Berlin in 1995
• Major COPs include Kyoto - 1997 (Accord), Bali-2007 (Action
Plan), Copenhagen - 2009 (Declaration), and the most recent in
Durban - 2011 (Platform)
All countries must agree in order for a decision to be
made in the UNFCCC.
2. Mitigation and Adaptation Action: How can policy
help to reduce climate change and its impacts?
1997 COP 3: The Kyoto Protocol
1997 COP 3 (Kyoto) delegates agreed to a Protocol: the legal
mechanism in the climate convention
Prescribed developed country emissions reductions for the
first commitment period (2008-2012)
Developed countries to reduce overall emissions of 6
GHGs by 5.2% (average) below 1990 levels
Outlines emission reductions required during a certain
period (2008-2012)
The Bali Action Plan
Shared vision and 4 key elements
1. mitigation
2. adaptation
3. finance
4. technology
Established Bali Roadmap
A long term cooperative action framework to
discuss future GHG mitigation targets and
strategies under the Convention post 2012
2009 COP15 Copenhagen
Copenhagen Accord
Not UNFCCC document, but recognized by COP
Agreement to keep below 2 degrees C
REDD+ paragraph
2010 COP 16 Cancun
Cancun Agreements - historic step forward for international
Some important accomplishments are establishment of:
• a REDD+ agreement,
• the Cancun Adaptation Framework,
• the Green Climate Fund, and
• the Technology Mechanism
2011 COP 17 Durban
Establishment of the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban
Platform for Enhanced Action
Some important accomplishments include:
• Second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol from
2013 –term to 5-8 years.
• Creation of the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action
– process to for an agreed outcome with legal force that is binding for all
• Operationalization of the Green Climate Fund
since long term finance and market mechanisms are going to be core issues to be discussed in Doha.
COP 18 Doha
Long term finance and market mechanisms are
going to be core issues to be discussed in
Climate Policy Timeline
05/92: UNFCCC
12/07: COP13 Bali
post-2012 roadmap
decision on REDD
12/05: COP11
Kyoto enter into
force; intro REDD
1994: UNFCCC
enter into force
12/09: COP15
11/01: Marrakesh
Accords signed
2012: Kyoto first
period ends
2010: Cancun
2008: Kyoto first
period begins
2011: Durban
4. How is the international community supporting
climate action?
What are national governments doing?
 Creating national mitigation and adaptation plans
 National Adaptation Programmes of Action & National
Adaptation Plans
 Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions - REDD+ Readiness
Planning & Demonstration
 Other national climate plans
 Using finance and technology from the international community
 Working to safeguard ecosystems for emission reduction and
adaptation benefits
How does the international community support
climate change action in developing countries?
• Funds have been created to help developing
countries adapt and mitigate
– Global Environment Facility (GEF)
– Kyoto Protocol’s Adaptation Fund
– Multi-lateral Banks (World Bank, Inter-American
Development Bank, etc…)
– Developed Country aid
– Private companies , foundations and donors
• Technology Transfer
Key Points to Remember
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) is the international body that organizes
countries to make policies about climate change.
• Only country governments can make decisions about
policies at the UNFCCC, but many other organizations
attend meetings to observe and influence decisionmaking.
Key Points to Remember
• Groups of countries with similar interests often work
together to promote policies that are in their best
• Country governments work to implement UNFCCC climate
change policies and recommended actions and also
develop their own national plans to address climate
• Indigenous peoples’ organizations work to influence
decisions at the UNFCCC.
Key Points to Remember
• Mitigation actions help stop or lessen climate change.
• Adaptation action helps countries adjust to changes that have
already happened or that may happen in the future.
• Funding, mainly provided by developed countries, is available
through the World Bank’s Global Environmental Facility and other
sources to support mitigation and adaptation action in developing
Supporting the
role of
peoples and
Full and Effective
Engagement and
Access to Information Freedom of Expression
Civil Society
Women Migrants Youth
Private Sector
Build spaces for shared learning and dialogue
among stakeholder groups
Flow of information and participation
How are indigenous peoples engaging in
international climate policy?
 Indigenous Peoples Organizations
 Representation on National Delegations
 United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
 Engagement in National Policy
 Valuing traditional knowledge and practice
Photo Courtesy of: Hindou Oumarou Ibrahim
Working at the Global Level
Organized through the Inuit
Circumpolar Council
The purpose of the summit was to
enable Indigenous peoples from all
regions of the globe to exchange
their knowledge and experience in
adapting to the impacts of climate
change, and to develop key
messages and recommendations
for the Conference of the Parties to
the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change in Copenhagen,
Denmark in December 2009.
Respect for Rights
Free, Prior and Informed Consent - FPIC
FPIC is the right of indigenous
peoples to give or withhold their
free, prior and informed consent
to actions that affect their lands
territories and natural resources.
ILO 169
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of
Indigenous Peoples
Consent is part of a recurring process,
described by various indigenous
peoples as ‘living consent,’ which
requires :
• continual monitoring
• maintenance
• reaffirmation
• throughout the various stages of a
• Decisions to withhold consent are not
necessarily forever binding and can
also be revisited by rights holders as
situations change or become more
“Originally developed in the context of
indigenous rights, FPIC is increasingly linked to
the right of all people to their land and
territories based on customary and historical
connection to them”.
Colchester, M., and M.F. Ferrari. 2007. Making FPIC – Free, Prior and Informed Consent – Work:Challenges
and Prospects for Indigenous Peoples. Forest Peoples Programme, Moreton-in- Marsh, UK.
FPIC is necessary to ensure:
Full effective participation of all -indigenous
peoples and project-affected communities - in
policies, programs and activities that affect
Supporting the
role of
peoples and
Actions at the
local level to
Indigenous Advisory Group:
Advising CI’s Programs on
Indigenous Issues
• Members of the IAG
Paulo Celso de Oliveira is a member of the Pankararu people; he practices law in Brasilia,
Brazil. As the first indigenous lawyer in Brazil, he works to defend the rights of indigenous
peoples in his country. (He works for FUNAI)
Mina Susana Setra, a Dayak woman from Indonesia, represents her country – and her people –
as the Director for Foreign Affairs for the Indigenous Peoples Alliance of the Archipelago
David James is a former schoolteacher, a member of the Arawak community, and the only
indigenous lawyer in Guyana.
Ramiro Batzin serves as the president of the indigenous organization Sotz’il, and as a
representative of the Mayan peoples on a national indigenous peoples and climate change
mesa (roundtable) in Guatemala. (out of all of them, he is most involved in UNFCCC)
Rogeliano Solis of the Kuna Yala people of Panama teaches Natural Sciences and advises on
issues of importance to the environment and people’s lives.
Kanyinke Sena is an Ogik from Kenya, and in addition to being a lawyer, is a member of the UN
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.
Indigenous Advisory Group
In communities:
IAG members, CI-Ecuador visit a
family-owned forest conservation
project in Ecuador that raises
threatened plant species used in
traditional medicine.
17 in
IN Guyana: Meeting with Indigenous leaders
and government to discuss climate policy and
Guyana’s low carbon development strategy
Indigenous Leaders Conservation
This year long fellowship has been created to provide
opportunities for leaders and scholars from indigenous and
traditional peoples communities and organizations to explore
solutions to the impacts of climate change and the
threats to ecosystems and biodiversity that are affecting their
lands, communities and livelihoods.
Name: Juan Cusanero Elías
Country: Guatemala
Indigenous Peoples Group:
Maya Kaqchikel
Name: Hindu Oumarou Ibrahim
Country: Chad
Indigenous Peoples Group: Mbororo
Name: Dominique Bikaba
Country: Democratic Republic of Congo
Indigenous Peoples Group: Bashi
Name: Akosita Denise Rokomate
Country: Fiji
Indigenous Peoples Group: Fijian
Guatemala: Sharing Information
& Building Skills
• Mesa Indigena de Cambio Climatico de
• Sotzil -Training of Trainers
• Indigenous Fellowship
• WB Development Market Place
Sharing Resources to support local action
Peru REDD+ Stakeholder Engagement Analysis
Concept and Methodology
Participatory Analysis
through Steering Committee
Data Gathering and
Participatory Analysis
Results and
Dissemination and Next
Peru: Supporting Effective Participation
thank you
What are the challenges and
opportunities related to achieving
effective flow of information , learning
and participation to and from
local to national to global climate
• IPCC reports and papers
• UNFCCC website
• Earth Negotiations Bulletin
• The Little REDD Book
• REDD: An Options Assessment Report (Prepared for Government of
Norway by Meridian Institute 2009)
• Moving Ahead with REDD (CIFOR, 2008)
• Policies to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)
in Tropical Forests (Discussion Paper from Resources for the Future