Strategic Management on Development and Transfer of Technologies for Adaptation to Climate Change: A Case in China Ji ZOU and Ke Wang Renmin University of China Tsinghua University Contents • Conceptual framework • Challenges in China: general and specific in water resources • Responses: Package of P&M options • Prioritized needs for technology-related capacity building for adaptation in China • Conclusion Global warming Climate system Curbing global warming Impacts on climate GHG emission and concentration + mitigation +Less negative impacts P&M package-Response to climate change: • Technologies: D&T • Engineering projects • Economic and financial • Institutional and policies • Behavior change No regret actions Fossil fuel use, Deforestation, etc - + + - , costs Impacts of response + - adaptation Combined system –Human and natural • Natural ecosystem • Socioeconomic system “ – ” : negative effects; Impacts of CC “ + ” : positive effects • Water resources • Food security • Biodiversity • Costal zones • Public health, etc Several concepts • Cost: expense by adopting technologies and building/operating projects/plans/schemes; • Benefits: avoided damage derived from climate change and response measures; • Effectiveness: specified objectives to avoid some undesired impacts; • Risk: probability multiplied by expected value of damage; and • Damage: exposure of receivers ×unit loss Progresses in China from perspectives of decision-making process for adaptation Assess effectiveness, and benefits of the candidate options Assess damage, risk, and vulnerability in both physical and socioeconomic terms A A A A A A some → less → nothing Conduct CBA/CEA and identify options with largest net-benefit (CBA) or least cost (CEA) Set up goals/targets for adaptation and select measures incl. technologies Develop and implement strategies and action plans for adaptation to CC In decisionmaking stage Identify candidate options of measures to adapt to impacts of climate change, including D&T&T Assess costs of the candidate options In academic research stage In academic research stage Degree In China: Assess physical impacts of climate change on specific sectors and stakeholders General Challenges in China for Adaptation to Climate Change (1) • Unbalanced and weaker knowledge, understanding, awareness, and consideration compared with mitigation; • High population exposure to impacts of CC; • Rising frequency and enlarging scale of extreme climate events (floods, drought in larger areas, increasing water shortage in north China); General Challenges in China for Adaptation to Climate Change (2) • High risk in food security for largest population in the world with limited farmland and low agricultural productivity; • Long coastal line with high exposure of population and wealth; • The vulnerable basis of ecosystem given uneven distribution of water resources, low coverage of vegetation/forest, intensive use of farmland, and increasing land use for fast urbanization (transportation and housing); and • Knowledge on relevant risks in public health is still very limited. Special Impacts of Climate Change: Water Resources as a Case • unbalanced geographical distribution of water and population: they do not match each other; • Uneven seasonal/temporal distribution of water (intensive rain in summer); • Sudden flood: extreme weather event; and • Limited storage of rainfall in areas with water shortage. Prioritized Areas to adapt to impacts of CC on water resources in China • Prevent from water-related disasters; and • Make rational use of water resources to support long-term sustainable development in China. Responses – package of P&M options It is a matter of a systematic arrangement, not a single technology. We need to design and implement a package of measures including major elements as follows: 1.Software 2.Hardware 3.Human resources 4.Financial resources Software • Concepts/knowledge, information, and awareness • Integrated assessment (models, analytical tools) • Information (appropriate frame and indicators, adequate collection and observation, reliable, easily shared, and in-time for decision-making) • Early warning: technical support (models, etc) and institutional coordination • Planning – optimal arrangement (based on CBA, CEA, RBA, DM and reliable information), and • Institutional arrangement and policy instruments in place. Hardware • • • • Technologies: IPR Equipment and devices; Engineering projects; and Other facilities of infrastructure Human Resources With adequate knowledge or expertise: • Policy makers (officials from governments, managers, engineers, and technicians from industries; policy analysts, …) • Academia: researchers and teachers/trainers • Project developers and market brokers; and • Journalists from media. Financial Resources Sources: • Domestic fiscal budget/public expenditure; • Domestic and international private investment; • Insurance; • international financial assistance: ODA and additional sources via multilateral and bilateral organizations. Coordination: • How to organize and integrate them? • How to assess effectiveness and efficiency of the use of financial resources? Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (1) • Introduce to regional and multi-sectoral impact assessment techniques; • Make models more powerful and applicable to support policy making (more decision making – oriented)； • Analytical techniques to separate impacts derived from climate change and other variable; Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (2) • Improve monitoring and observation system, especially focusing on automatic and continuous observation and information-sharing; • Enhance capacity in early warning of extreme weather events by better predicting modeling, information, and institutional coordination; • Identify further technological and policy options for adaptation. Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (3) • R&D in adaptive agriculture and forest technologies; • Techniques for impact assessment on public health; • Techniques for socioeconomic impact assessment; Prioritized needs for capacity building identified by NCSA (4) • Transfer of knowledge in insurance; • Information management; and • Transfer of technologies in telemetry, remote sensing, automatic monitoring instruments, atmospheric background assessment, and atmospheric chemical composition. Conclusions • High demands for P&Ms to adapt to climate change in China: very vulnerable; • Capacity is still weak: knowledge, information, awareness, institution and policies, and technologies and facilities; • Initial focuses may be on prevention from extreme climate events by enhancing early warning capacity (models, information, etc); and • Integrated package should be applied in a coordinative manner.