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Transcript
Biotic Response to Climate Change
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
No Response (Stasis)
Evolution and Adaptation (Species-level)
Microevolution (Below Species-level)
Dispersal
Extinction
Dispersal vs. Migration
Migration (Seasonal) – organisms move
across landscapes as part of an annual
cycle
(Bird migration, Caribou migration, Fish migration)
Dispersal (“Permanent”) – organisms move
to new areas in response to environmental
shifts
Precipitation & Temperature Gradients in US
&
Effective Moisture
Precipitation: East-West
Temperature: North-South
C
O
L
D
E
R
DRIER
Interaction of Temperature and Precipitation
Effective Moisture (EM) = Precipitation (P) – Evaporation (E)
If Precipitation remains constant then:
Cooler Climates > EM because E is lower
Warmer Climates < EM because E is higher
Biomes of North America
Climate Control?
Biomes
Climate
Latitudinal Dispersal with Temperature Change
Warmer
Climate
Warmer
Climate
Colder
Climate
Colder
Climate
Latitudinal Dispersal with Precipitation
Change
Drier climate
Moister climate
Climate Change for 4,000 to 20,000 years ago
Warmer
Colder
Younger
Older
Past Distributions of Bio-Climate Zones
Northern & Southeastern Species Specific Examples of
Response to Late Pleistocene Climate Change
Western & Eastern Species Specific Examples of
Response to Late Pleistocene Climate Change
Cautionary Note
Climate is not the only thing that limits the
distribution of organisms
Some Limiting Factors for the Distribution
of
Cynomys ludovicianus (black tail prairie dog)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Precipitation (dry climate)
Soil Moisture (dry but some moisture)
Soil type (not sand)
Soil thickness (1-2 m)
Short grass (no tall grass or forest)
Moderately “large” area (colonial)
Testing Hypotheses
Myodes gapperi
(red back vole) today
http://www.mnh.si.edu/mna/
Climate Change
Species
1.
2.
3.
4.
Go to Neotoma Database: http://www.neotomadb.org/
Select Explorer at bottom left
Enlarge North American Map with sliding scale at upper left
Select modern distribution (red polygon at top) and enter
species name
5. Hypothesis: If the climate is colder from 15,000 to 20,000 years
ago, then Myodes gapperi should occur farther to the: south,
north, east, or west (select one and test hypothesis)
6. Open search form (binoculars) at top left and enter species
name (Myodes gapperi) and dates 20,000 to 15,000 and hit
SEARCH
7. Was your hypothesis correct?
Testing Hypotheses
Myodes gapperi
(red back vole) today
http://www.mnh.si.edu/mna
Climate Record




New Hypothesis: If the climate warms between 15,000 and 10,000
years ago, then will Myodes gapperi move north, south, east, or
west?
Test your hypothesis by repeating step six and using the ages of
15,000 and 10,000
Formulate your own hypothesis for 500 to 4000 years ago (use
climate curve above) and now test the hypothesis?
What can you conclude about the climate adaptation of the red back
vole and what would you predict will happen to it with future global
warming?
Select the following species and test your
hypotheses:
Thomomys talpoides (pocket gopher)
Microtus xanthognathus (yellow cheeked vole)
Cryptotis parva (least shrew)
Cynomys ludovicianus (black tail prairie dog)