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Paloma Valles
VO2 max
This is the volume
of oxygen that is
absorbed by the
body per minute
and supplied to
the tissues
As the
VO2 rises,
until VO2
max is
This is the
rate at which
oxygen can
be absorbed
by the body
and supplied
to the tissues.
• Glycogen: a polysaccharide stored in muscle fibers. It can be
broken down to supply glucose for respiration and muscle
contraction. It is used during periods of intense/long-duration
• used for glucose storage
• Myoglobin: a respiratory pigment found in some muscles. It acts
as an oxygen store by combining with O2 in areas of high
concentration and breaks down when the oxygen levels are low.
• used for oxygen storage, for use during exercise
Muscle contraction requires a supply of energy. It is obtained by
converting ATP to ADP. The ADP that is produces must be
converted back into ATP, for muscle contraction to continue.
There are 3 ways of doing this:
1.)Creatine phosphate
2.)Anaerobic cell respiration
3.)Aerobic cell respiration
• Aerobic Respiration: Can produce ATP continuously with the use
of oxygen
• Anaerobic Respiration: Requires ATP at such a rapid rate that
O2 cannot be supplied quickly enough Anaerobic respiration
produces ATP for short periods of time (2 minutes), lactate is
produced and H+ ions accumulate preventing the exercise
• Creatine Phosphate: Muscles contain stores of CP which can be
used to phosphorylate ADP Creatine Phosphate + ADP > ATP +
creatine This allows ATP to be produced 8-10 seconds
• -They are taken by body builders to increase muscle mass
• -May cause weight gain by water retention (may impair
• -Can increase concentration of creatine in muscle in athletes
with naturally low concentrations.
• -Only small doses of creatine are needed to reach maximal
• -There is evidence of an increase in maximum intensity over
short distances -Endurance involving aerobic respiration not
• At start of exercise: Glycolysis (anaerobic means of ATP
provision) is primed by hormones and neurotransmitters
• -Low/moderate intensity: energy demands are met increasingly
by fat (muscle triglycerides/plasma free fatty acids)
• -high intensity: energy from carbohydrate-derived fuels
predominates (muscles extract more energy per litre of O2
consumed if carbs are used: 5kcal vs 4.86kcal from mixture of
fat and carb)
• Lactate: Produced during anaerobic respiration and is passed
to the liver to create oxygen debt
• Oxygen Debt: If large amount of lactate builds up a large
amount of oxygen is needed to repay the debt
Anaerobic respiration ----> lactate ----> absorbed from blood
and converted into Pyruvate. . . .
Then either……….converted to glucose by the liver OR absorbed
by mitochondria and used in aerobic respiration in the
mitochondrion, using oxygen taken in during deep ventilations
after exercise