Towards functional effects of polyphenols : modulation of energy
... polyphenol aglycones and are therefore easily eliminated through bile and
urine [36-38]. Chronic administration of selected polyphenols could
possibly increase the systemic exposure considerably. Flavonols have
plasma half lives of ~20h, whereas catechins and anthocyanins are
eliminated 5-10 times f ...
Regulation of the phosphotransferase system (PTS)
... Corynebacterium glutamicum is a Gram-positive bacterium used in the biotechnological production
of amino acids. It co-metabolizes most substrates, such as glucose and sucrose. The uptake and
concomitant phosphorylation of those two substrates is mediated by the phosphoenolpyruvate
(PEP)-dependent ph ...
Evidence of separate pathways for lactate uptake and release by the
... part of an intracellular lactate shuttle, which could
account for the simultaneous release and uptake of
lactate in well-oxygenated tissue. However, despite
this evidence, there have been no studies specifically
designed to determine whether lactate efflux from the
myocardium that occurs simultaneou ...
Lack of Knowledge on the Use and Benefits of Creatine
... when certain sports require dehydration, for example like wrestling. Furthermore, more ASOS
mentions that it is dangerous for someone who is trying to lose weight. This is because, water
will be retained, which increases weight, and not decrease it. Plus, an increased water weight will
keep the fact ...
Creatine A Complete Users Guide
... USA fined $70,000 for false claims about sports performance product Muscle Marketing USA
Limited has been fined $70,000 in the Auckland District Court today for breaching the Fair
Trading Act in relation to its sports performance enhancing product ATP Advantage Creatine
Serum. In sentencing, Judge E ...
rapid acting insulin analogues - The Association of Physicians of India
... convenience, reduced risk of hypoglycemia and, in some instances, less weight gain. Combined, these
elements may increase a patient’s adherence to treatment, potentially increasing the level of glycemic
control and improving the prognosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Rapid-acting insulin anal ...
Lactic acidosis - Medical School
... concentration of pyruvate; the [NADH]/[NAD] ratio, otherwise referred to as the redox (reductionloxidation) state; and
the intracellular hydrogen ion concentration.
Pyruvate concentration. Assuming no change in the other
two determinants, an increment in pyruvate concentration
should lead to a propo ...
Regulation of Exogenous and Endogenous Glucose Metabolism by
... Myocardial substrate use is tightly controlled not only by the
availability of substrate and oxygen, but also by the workload
imposed on the heart and the hormonal environment. While
fatty acid oxidation is the major energy source for the heart
under normal conditions in vivo, changes in the above f ...
Free radical scavenging and antioxidant effects of lactate ion: an in
... tion and lipid peroxidation, as evaluated by malondialdehyde (MDA), during a progressive incremental
exercise. However, Anbar and Neta (2), in tests of the
scavenging activity of various and numerous agents
toward the hydroxyl radical (䡠OH), noted that the lactate ion acted as a moderate 䡠OH scaveng ...
Endocytosis, Recycling, and Regulated Exocytosis of Glucose
... in the fission of vesicles from membranes, is necessary for CME and
has also been implicated in caveolin-1-, IL-2Rβ-, and flotillindependent endocytotic processes.15
GLUT4, the major carrier of glucose into muscle and fat cells,
is a recycling protein that is continuously removed from and
recycled b ...
... Under normal physiological conditions, the primary site of
carnitine production is in the liver. During lactation, the production
of carnitine in the mammary gland increases, apparently at the
expense of production in the mother's liver, which is also
accompanied by reduced hepatic enzymatic and tra ...
Glutamine metabolism and its effects on immune response
... mainly from the muscle and lung to the liver, as glutamine, alanine, and aspartate. The breakdown of glutamine
releases NH3 that through mitochondrial enzymes enters
the urea cycle as a substrate. The urea cycle consumes
two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon
dioxide, creates one molecu ...
principles of metabolic regulation: glucose and glycogen
... residues with about 2,000 nonreducing ends. Twenty to
40 of these particles cluster together to form -rosettes,
easily seen with the microscope in tissue samples from
well-fed animals (Fig. 15–2) but essentially absent after
a 24-hour fast.
The glycogen in muscle is there to provide a quick
Ketone Body Metabolism Preserves Hepatic Function during
... are synthesized in liver from acetyl-CoA derived primarily from fatty acid oxidation and are transported
to extrahepatic tissues for terminal oxidation during physiological states characterized by limited
carbohydrate and surplus fatty acid availability [reviewed in (4,5); (Figs. 1.1A-B)]. Ketone bo ...
insulin therapy for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
... History of insulin treatment1
Diabetes recognized as a distinct medical condition
for at least 3500 yrs.
Before the discovery of insulin, the only way to
control diabetes was a diet low in CHO and high in
fat and protein.
In 1889, Minkowski removed the pancreas from a
healthy dogs → developed ...
Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports
... Although creatine supplementation has been shown to
be more effective on predominantly anaerobic intermittent exercise, there is some evidence of its positive
effects on endurance activities. Branch  highlights
that endurance activities lasting more than 150s rely on
oxidative phosphorylation as ...
Ch31-Gluconeogenesis and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Levels
... Some tissues of the body, such as the brain and red blood cells, cannot synthesize glucose on their own, yet depend on glucose for energy. On a long-term
basis, most tissues also require glucose for other functions such as the synthesis of
the ribose moiety of nucleotides or the carbohydrate portion ...
Ch23-Oxidation of Fatty Acids and Ketone Bodies
... Fatty acids are a major fuel for humans and supply our energy needs between
meals and during periods of increased demand, such as exercise. During
overnight fasting, fatty acids become the major fuel for cardiac muscle, skeletal
muscle, and liver. The liver converts fatty acids to ketone bodies (ace ...
The network of calcium regulation in muscle
... regulation of actomyosin activity by Ca2+
(Weber, 1959) through its interaction with
troponin (Ebashi, 1963; Ebashi et al., 1999).
In the intervening years the messenger role of
Ca2+ has been demonstrated in virtually all
living cells and all cellular compartments, in
processes as diverse as cell di ...
A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions. They have autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine effects; their systemic effects occur at picomolar concentrations.Receptors for myokines are found on muscle, fat, liver, pancreas, bone, heart, immune, and brain cells. The location of these receptors explain the fact that myokines have multiple functions. Foremost, they are involved in exercise-associated metabolic changes, as well as in the metabolic changes following training adaptation. They also participate in tissue regeneration and repair, maintenance of healthy bodily functioning, immunomodulation; and cell signaling, expression and differentiation.