Download Evolution of Populations

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Pharmacogenomics wikipedia, lookup

Deoxyribozyme wikipedia, lookup

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

Genome (book) wikipedia, lookup

Microevolution wikipedia, lookup

Dominance (genetics) wikipedia, lookup

Designer baby wikipedia, lookup

Genomic imprinting wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression programming wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of human development wikipedia, lookup

Quantitative trait locus wikipedia, lookup

Gene wikipedia, lookup

Nutriepigenomics wikipedia, lookup

Public health genomics wikipedia, lookup

Gene expression profiling wikipedia, lookup

Site-specific recombinase technology wikipedia, lookup

Population genetics wikipedia, lookup

History of genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Genetic engineering wikipedia, lookup

Human genetic variation wikipedia, lookup

Biology and consumer behaviour wikipedia, lookup

Behavioural genetics wikipedia, lookup

Heritability of IQ wikipedia, lookup

Genome evolution wikipedia, lookup

Epistasis wikipedia, lookup

Hardy–Weinberg principle wikipedia, lookup

Inbreeding wikipedia, lookup

Genetic drift wikipedia, lookup

Polymorphism (biology) wikipedia, lookup

Koinophilia wikipedia, lookup

The Selfish Gene wikipedia, lookup

Group selection wikipedia, lookup

Dual inheritance theory wikipedia, lookup

Twin study wikipedia, lookup

Adaptive evolution in the human genome wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Evolution of Populations
Gene Pool
• All of the genes
(including all of the
alleles of those
genes) that are in a
population
Relative Frequency
• The number of times an allele occurs
Evolution
• (In genetics), evolution is anytime there is a
change in the frequency in alleles in a
population.
Variation
• Mutations = Mistakes
or damage to DNA
Sometimes effect
phenotype but not
always
• Gene Shuffling= 23
pairs of chromosomes
can produce 8.4
million combinations
of genes
Single / Polygenic
• Single Gene Traits
• A single gene has two
alleles
• Usually a dominant
and recessive
• Only two distinct
phenotypes can be
shown
• Polygenic Traits
• Often has two or
more genes
• Each gene has two or
more alleles
• Many possible
genotypes and
phenotypes
Natural Selection on polygenic traits can affect the
distribution of traits in three ways
• Directional
Selection
• Stabilizing
Selection
• Disruptive
Selection
Directional Selection
Disruptive Selection
Stabilizing Selection
Genetic Drift: in small populations an individual that carries a particular
allele may leave more offspring than others and over time that trait may
become more prevalent in the population
Founder Effect
• The new allele frequency is different from the
original population
Hardy Weinberg
• Hardy Weinberg
Principle states that the
allele frequency in a
population will remain
at genetic equilibrium
unless one or more
factors cause it to
change. If they do not
change, the population
will not evolve.
Genetic Equilibrium
• When allele
frequencies
in a
population
remain
constant,
Hardy Weinberg Principle – Five Conditions
• 1. Random Mating
• 2. Large population
• 3. No Immigration or
Emigration
• 4. No Mutations
• 5. No Natural Selection