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 = forkhead box 2
 mutation in this gene were found in families that have a high
incidence of abnormalities in speech and grammar
 only one aminoacid substitution had occured in the 130
Myr separating mice and ancestor of humans and
 two substitution occured in the human lineage during
the 4-6 Myr since it separated from chimpanzees!
 this gene is virtually invariant in another 28 orders of
mammals that last shared common ancestor around
100 million years ago
(Futuyma, D.J., (2005) Evolution. Sinauer Associates, INC. Sunderland, MA,USA. p. 455)
 = sarcomeric myosin heavy chain
 MYH is highly expressed in the chewing
muscles of chimpanzees and is
responsible for the large size of these
muscles in this and other non-human
 in humans, MYH has been inactivated by
a frameshift mutation that occured about
2,4 Myr
 = olfactory receptor genes
 these are approximately 1200 functional
OR genes in the mouse genome, but only
550 in humans
 = apparently selective pressures to
maintain OR gene functionally are relaxed
in humans
Olfactory Receptor Genes
 the remote ancestor of mammals carried a single
gene for detecting odors that has been
duplicated many times
 as a result, humans today have about 1 000 olfactory
receptor genes
 mice have 1 300
 more recently , about 60% of human olfactory
receptor genes have been inactivated by
 whereas mice have lost only 20% of theirs
 …this dramatic difference demonstrates that a
versatile sense of smell is more important to
mice than it is to us!