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China Resists Imperialism What were the causes of the Opium Wars? The Opium Wars • Very little trade between China & the West • Only trade involved silk & tea for silver which favored China • Britain wanted to change this trade policy, so it favors the West • Britain brings technology gifts to China, Chinese are unimpressed • British bring opium from India to China • 1835: 12 million Chinese were hooked on the drug – Chinese Qing Emperor tries to ban opium • Emperor’s advisor complains to Britain’s Queen Victoria • Queen ignores him and Britain continues trading in Opium • 1839: China tries to destroy British opium. Britain starts “Opium Wars” Stop selling drugs to our people! • Chinese loses the war •1842: Treaty of Nanjing gives Britain the island of Hong Kong & extraterritorial rights (foreigners not subject to Chinese Law) Poppy Plant Deal with it! Taiping Rebellion • Rebellions break out against the Qing Government for not protecting China • 1850: Hong Xiuquan forms a peasant army and attacks the Qing Govt. • Hong’s movement is called the Taiping Rebellion • 1864: Empress Cixi asks British & French to help defeat Hong’s army – 20 million+ killed in Taiping rebellion • Qing Govt. owes the west – more trade to come • European countries & Japan begin to compete to bring China under their Sphere of Influence • Fearing another “Scramble for Africa”, the US negotiates the open door policy, which allowed all nations trade with China BoxerRebellion • The new Qing Emperor wants to end o.d. policy • He is arrested & replaced by Empress Cixi who expands foreign influence •1900: Many Chinese were angry and began to revolt during the Boxer Rebellion •Although the Boxers were beaten, China knew it must reform – elections & Const. Monarchy urged!