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Imperialism in China
The Roots of Revolution
1500’s – China had
strict trade
restrictions
1700’s - Westerners
were interested in
trading with China
• Emperor Qianlong turned
down requests for trading
rights
• Westerners wanted silk,
tea, porcelain, etc.
China Rejects Trade with West
Late 1700’s in China
1. Qing Dynasty begins to decline
•Peasants are having a hard time
producing enough food
•Peasant revolts
2. Industrial Revolution in Europe
•Increased military power to pursue
trading rights
Europeans Gain Ground
Late 1700’s - Britain
begins to sell opium
from India in China
• Many Chinese become
addicted
• Used Chinese silver to pay
Chinese government
tried to limit drug trade
and drug use
• Harsh punishments for users
and smugglers
Opium Sale in China
1839 – Chinese destroy a British shipment of
opium (China’s Boston Tea Party)
• War breaks out
• Britain has superior military technology
Britain defeats China in the Opium Wars
Opium Wars
Opium Wars
(Anglo-Chinese Wars)
1839 - 1842 and 1856 - 1860
Chinese concessions after Opium Wars
• Emperor agreed to pay for destroyed
opium
• Gave Britain territory of Hong Kong
• Opened other ports to trade with British
• Westerners gained extraterritoriality
The Treaty of Nanjing
Spheres of
Influence
•An
area in
which a foreign
nation has
special economic
privileges
• Right to
build
railroads,
factories, etc.
• Leads to
political
influence
Late 1800’s
• Japan is rapidly
modernizing and
industrializing
Japan defeats China
• Japan wins Formosa
(Taiwan)
• Extends influence over
Korea
Sino-Japanese War
United States called for an “Open Door” Policy in
China
•All nations would have equal access
to trade with China
Was supposed to prevent European nations from
setting up colonies in China
• Real reason: United States arrived in
China after Japan and most European
nations had already established their
territory
• Policy failed
Open Door Policy
Loss of
territory to
foreigners
Peasant
Revolts
Signs of Weakness
1851-66
• >20 million killed
Qing dynasty crushed
rebellion
• Dynasty was greatly
weakened
Marked beginning of
decline of the Qing Dynasty
• Some wanted reforms
in government and
society
Taiping Rebellion
What did the
reformers want?
Western
technology
Preservation
of Confucian
culture
Government
Response
Reforms under
emperor Guang Xi
• Factories for modern
weapons
• Sent men abroad to
study
• Updates to civil
service exams
• Western style schools
• Economic changes
100 DAYS OF REFORMS
Ci Xi
(Empress)
Seized power
in 1898
• Believed that
reforms
threatened
traditional
Confucian order
Opposition to Reforms
Foreign armies in
Beijing’s forbidden city
Anti-foreign Chinese formed
the Fists of Righteous
Harmony (Boxers)
• Boxers attacked and killed
Chinese Christians and
foreigners
Western powers crushed
Boxers with international
army
• China was now forced to
allow foreign troops on
Chinese land and warships
on the water
The Boxer Rebellion
Revolution of
1911
Puyi
The Last Qing Emperor
China declared
itself a republic
No organized
government from
1911-1928
• Civil war
• Country in pieces
The End of Imperial Rule