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Imperialism in India, China and
Things that made imperialism
• Technology
▫ Steam power made
travel easier
▫ Machine guns
• End of old empires
▫ Made it easy for
Europeans to take
Types of Imperialism
• Colony: territory governed by foreign power
• Most foreign influence
• Examples: Belgian Congo, British India
• Protectorate: territory governs itself but with
foreign control
• Examples: recent Iraq and Afghanistan?;
• Sphere of Influence: territory in which foreign
country claims exclusive political or economic
• Least foreign influence
• Example: China in 1800s
The British East India Company
• Trading company,
not government
• Controlled most of
India from 1800 to
Sepoy Rebellion
• Sepoy = Indian
soldier in British
• Muslims and
Hindus were angry
because of animal
fat in gun cartridges
The Raj (British Rule)
• British government
took over when
Sepoys rebelled
• Set up Indian Civil
Benefits of the Raj
• Railroads, roads,
and canals built in
• Britain got cheap
Ram Mohun Roy
• Followed
Enlightenment ideas
about human rights
• Worked for
independent India
• Indian National
Congress founded in
Ming Dyanasty (1368 – 1644)
• Previously, China had been under the Yuan
(Mongol) Dynasty
• 1368 Hongwu took over and began Ming
(“brilliant”) dynasty
• Took more government power for himself
• Son Yonglo built Forbidden City
Ming trade and exploration thrived
at first, but voyages were expensive
and eventually stopped
Smugglers traded illegally,
agriculture expanded, and the
economy was doing well
Qing (1644-1911)
• Weak leaders led
to the downfall of
the dynasty
• The Qing from
Manchuria took
over next
• Qing were not Chinese, but adapted to Chinese culture well
• Had a sense of superiority in trading with foreigners – Chinese
goods were better than everyone else’s
• Chinese didn’t want
to let Europeans in
• Sold a lot of tea to
British for silver balance of trade was
in China’s favor
Opium War
• Britain smuggled
opium into China
• Chinese destroyed it
• British attacked and
captured Shanghai
• Qing dynasty
lost the
mandate of
Unequal Treaties
• Treaty of Nanjing
opened more places
for Europe to trade
• Opened spheres of
influence in China
for US, Britain,
France, and Russia
Taiping Rebellion (1850s)
• Hong Xiuquan
wanted to set up
ideal kingdom
• Failed (20 million
Boxer Rebellion (1899)
• Secret society of
Harmonious Fists
• Temporarily
“captured” Beijing
• Embarrassed Qing