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WHII: SOL 9d,e
Imperialism in Asia
Japan
• Japan had practiced isolationism for 200 years
• 1853-Mathew Perry arrives representing the U.S.
, to push Japan to open its doors to trade with
U.S.
• Treaty of Kanagawa-shogun agrees to open two
of Japans ports to U.S. ships, but not for trade
• U.S eventually gains trading rights and
extraterritoriality- Americans did not have to
follow Japanese laws, but rather American laws in
Japan
Meiji
• Meiji Restoration-Japan seeks to reform,
overthrows the shogun and puts the
“emperor” on the throne
-strong, central government
-modern military
-industrialization (zaibatsu –powerful banking
and industrial families)
-homogenous society (strong sense of identity)
-Korea is focus of competition between Russia,
China, and Japan
Japan
• 1894- 1st Sino-Japanese War (Japan wins)
• 1896-Russo-Japanese War (Japans wins)
• Japan begins to compete with Europe to
establish an empire in East Asia
China
• Before the 1800’s China dominated trade with Europe
• The had a trade surplus- they exported (sold) more
than they imported (bought)
• Opium War-GB began selling opium in China; many
Chinese became addicted, used large amounts of silver
to pay for the opium, disrupting the economy in China
• China outlawed opium, killed drug lords, called on GB
to stop selling opium, GB refused
• China attacked GB trade ships in 1839, Chinese were
easily defeated
• Treaty of Nanjing, China had to pay GB for losses
during the war, open 5 ports to trade and allow
GB citizens extraterritoriality (live under GB laws
and be tried in GB courts)
• Taiping Rebellion-peasant rebellion against the
Qing dynasty, dynasty crushed the rebellion but
20-30 million Chinese died, severely weakened
Qing dynasty
• 1860’s China tries to reform and modernize, too
little, too late
Open Door Policy
• Spheres of Influence- economic areas where
one nation has absolute trading and
investment rights (in an area of China)
• Open Door Policy-1899 U.S. called for all
nations to trade on an equal basis in China
• CHINA WAS NOT CONSULTED ON THIS POLICY
Boxer Rebellion
• 1899 Boxer Rebellion organized to oust the
Europeans from China
• Led by the Righteous Fists of Harmony
(martial arts) called Boxers by Europeans
• Boxers attacked foreigners across China; in
response Europe organized a multi-national
force to crush the Boxers
Toward Communism
• Early 1900’s saw the decline of the Qing
dynasty and China began to create a republic.
Sun Yixian led the Revolutionary Alliance
based on his “Three Principles of the People”
• 1911- Sun Yixian was named president of the
new Chinese Republic
• The republic faced many problems and left
China open to many different ideologies to
take root