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Name: Kaitlyne Steele
Activity: Annotated Sequencing G.O. on Western Nations Gain Power
Directions:
A. Sequencing Chart
 Read and take notes the section. Pages 349-352
 Identify major events on your sequencing chart and explain their significance or purpose
(annotation)
The Opium War
The Treaty of Nanjing
The Taiping Rebellion
U.S. Open-Door Policy
The Boxer Rebellion
The Revolution of 1911
The Opium War
-imbalance of trade
-solution was opium (china had great demand; but drug was banned in 1796 by emperor.)
-British merchants smuggled drug into China.
-1839 Chinese officials ordered “destruction of opium” (blew up storage of drug)
-British responded by sending naval force to launch an attack
-British caught Shanghai in 1842, and forced China to sign peace treaty (Treaty of Nanjing)
Q: What/Who is Shanghai?
The Treaty of Nanjing
-First unequal treaty (benefitted Britain)
-Treaty gave more ports in China for trade, and gave extraterritoriality to British
EXTRATERRITORIALITY  (in this case) British citizens accused of crimes in China had the right
to be tried in British courts rather than in Chinese courts.
The Taiping Rebellion
-Cause: Failure of the Qing dynasty to resist the Western powers made a portion of Chinese people
believe that the dynasty has lost the mandate of heaven. Belief led to series of rebellion (1850)
-Most serious rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan (believed that his brother was Jesus. Wanted to create a
“Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace” where no one would be poor.)
Connection (t-w): Tzar of Russia thought that his rule was sent from the Gods—Hong thought that he
was the brother of Jesus.
Q: Would his “Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace be “communism” in today’s world?
-Hong & Followers captured large territories in Southeastern China and eventually ruled the city of
Nanjing. (1853)
-Qing soldiers, British soldiers, and French armies attacked the Taiping army and defeated them in
1864.
-More than 20 million Chinese people died in the Taiping Rebellion.
Q: Did Hong Qiuquan die in the invasion of Europe?
U.S. Open Door Policy
-Western powers rushed to claim more territory in China. Germany, Russia, Britain, and France all
carved out spheres of influence.
-(late 1890’s) U.S. got involved. U.S. feared that Europe would divide up china for themselves, and
U.S. would be out of the mix.
-John Hay (U.S. secretary of state) proposed the open door policy
-Open Door Policy = free trade in all Chinese ports under European control. Policy would allow trade
between U.S and china.
-European nations never formally agreed to the O.D.P but they did allow free trade in their ports.
Q: Did any Nations stop trade with U.S because of this reason?
The Boxer Rebellion
-Involvement with the West caused many nationalist movements in China
-Most important: Harmonious Fists or Boxers (the Boxer Rebellion)
-Boxers combined martial arts training, hatred of foreigners, and a belief that they are invulnerable to
Western weapons.
-Began in 1899; Boxers started attacking missionaries and Chinese coverts to Christianity.
-Boxers laid siege to foreign compounds in Beijing & held the foreigners hostage for 55 days (June
1900)
-A few weeks later 20,000 foreign troops captured Beijing & suppressed the uprising.
-Foreign powers imposed a heavy fine on the Chinese gov. for secretly supporting the Boxers.
Q: Why didn’t the Chinese gov stop the Boxers? Even though they were supporting them, couldn’t the
gov stop the chaos of it all?
-Result: more humiliation for the Chinese gov.
The Revolution of 1911
-Qing officials finally began to enact reforms.
-Eliminated system of examinations for officials and tried to establish primary and secondary school.
-Officials took steps to create a new national army
-Created elected provincial assemblies, which began to meet in 1909
-Radicals living in Japan & the U.S. called for the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and the creation of a
new Chinese republic.
B. Writing and Ranking

Explain how European intervention in China contributed to the down fall of the Qing Dynasty?
Europeans trading with China created a downfall of the Qing Dynasty in general. For centuries
there was no connection between Europe and Asia because of the differences but Europe
culture, and powers who started to change what has been in power for centuries caused
Nationalistic movements, and humiliation upon the empire.

Rank the importance of the following events in the downfall of the Qing Dynasty based on
your annotated sequencing chart:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Treaty of Nanjing
Opium War
U.S. Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
The Taipan Rebellion
Revolution of 1911