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Chapter 15, Section 1
The Decline of the Qing Dynasty
Causes of the Decline
Influence of the modern, Western world vs.
conservative China
 Internally – corruption, peasant unrest, &
 Massive population growth = food shortage
 Opium War & Tai Ping Rebellion
The Opium War
GB & China have HUGE trade
1800=GB restricted to small island of Guangzhou
GB’s imports > exports
 Trade
imbalance for GB
England turned to trading opium from India
 Opium
illegal in China, so it catches on fast
 Trade imbalance for China
China asked GB to stop, but GB refused
Opium War (cont’d)
Chinese blockaded Gngzh. & started confiscating
opium chests in international waters
GB’s military moves in to free their ships
 Can
you see both sides?
 Who is in the right? Who is in the wrong?
China’s navy had no chance
1842: Treaty of Nanjing
Terms: 5 ports for trade, low taxes on GB’s goods,
China will pay for war, Hong Kong to GB
The Tai Ping Rebellion
Peasant Revolt
 Hong Xiuquan
 Called for equality, but led to Communism
 Killed
25K in Nanging in 1 day
 Lasted 14 years (was Chinese “Civil War”)
 20 million total dead
The Chinese govt. was focused outward while
falling apart inside
Efforts at Reform
By 1870’s, Qing Dynasty is officially in
decline (remember the O.W. and the TPR)
 Hired warlords
 Militarism
 Factories
 Railroads
 Basic industrialization/modernization
The Advance of Imperialism
All the changes can’t keep
the Qings in power
European influence creeps in
Russia takes territories in the
GB, Japan, France, and
Germany come in through the
trading ports (Spheres of
Japan takes Taiwan
Opening the Door to China
U.S. Sec. of State =
John Hay
 Goal?
 Open Door Policy:
Trying to keep
China’s traditions but
embrace Western
influence, capitalism,
& trade
The Boxer Rebellion (1900)
The “Boxers” rejected the ODP (& foreign
influence altogether)
 Terrorist organization (killed foreign
businessmen, sunk trade ships, etc.)
 Backfired as foreigners united & crushed
 Qing dynasty left this uprising weaker than ever
The Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion