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China
The History of China
1300-1900
China Today: What do you know?
Early China (1300-1800)
• One of the world’s earliest civilizations
– at least 67,000 years old
• Relatively isolated from foreign influence
– Westerners arrive in 1500’s
• Trade was used with restrictions
• Isolationism was primary focus
Qing Dynasty
1691-1910
1st dynasty to
unite China under
one ruling family
1st built in 5th century BC
Major construction from 1386-1644
Over 4,000 miles long!
Life in Early China
• Most Chinese were farmers
• Men dominated households
What is tradition?
• Attempted to preserve tradition
China & Self-sufficiency
• 1793 England visits Qing emperor
– Chinese are not “interested” in western goods
• Opium smuggled into China
– 12 million Chinese opium addicts
• China outraged with England
Opium War of 1839
• China suffers humiliating defeat against Great Britain
• 1842 sign the peace Treaty of Nanjing
– Forced to give up Hong Kong
– Opened up China to trade from foreigners
•
(Russia, France, US, Germany)
Qing Dynasty in decline
• Population explosion
– 430 million in 1850
• Food production did not grow quickly enough
– Hunger widespread
• Military very weak
• Government Corrupt
Combination makes
change inevitable
Taiping Rebellion
• 1850-64 1 million rebels fight Qing Dynasty
– Mainly peasant soldiers
• Goal:
To build a fair & equal China
• End Result:
– Economically devastating to China
– Over 20 million people die of starvation
– Signals large change for China in the future
Foreign Influence grows
• Foreigners increasingly dominate Chinese economy
– Built railroads,
• Peasants & workers resent the “special” privileges of
foreigners
• 1900 “Boxer” Rebellion against foreigners
Boxer Rebellion
8- Country International troops defeat Boxers
Japan, Russia, Great Britain, U.S., France, Germany, Italy, Austria
Qing Dynasty Falls
• Boxer rebellion raised nationalism in China
• 1908 Qing dynasty announces a full constitutional
government will be in place by 1917
• 1912 the Republic of China formed
• Country falls into Civil War
Journal #1:
• Describe the history, culture & tradition of China between
1300-1800
• Describe the influence of the Opium War of 1839 on
China.
Qing
Dynasty
Opium
War
1691
1839
Taiping
Rebellion
1850-64
Boxer
Rebellion
1900
Civil
War
1917
China Summary
• Chinese society was based on tradition
• Western influence was forced and came late to China
• Opium War of 1839 changes China
• China falls into civil war 1900-1950 as Qing dynasty
collapses