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Imperialism in China
Chinese IsolationismChinese centered world
Trading rules for other
pay a tribute
special ports
Kowtow ritual- bow
before emperor, touch
head to floor nine times
How do you feel about
Chinese trade laws?
Dutch trading partners
performed kowtow
porcelain, silk, tea- In 1800, tea is 80% of
trade to Europe
Great Britain
 1793 – letter from King to the Chinese Emperor
better trade arrangement
brought gifts- advanced tech
accept British manufactured goods
refused to do the kowtow
 China rejects offer –self sufficient
Strong agriculture
Mining=jobs- salt, tin, silver, iron
Manufacturing- silks, cotton, porcelain
 Trade imbalance
tea drains silver supply of Britain
Introduction of Opium in late 18th century- 1835-12 million
Failure to Remain Isolated
Opium War- 1838
Opium creates problemssocial, moral, and
Chinese advisor to
Stop trading opium
Opium illegal in China
No reply- continued trade
How did opium change your
way of life?
Sea battles: Opium War #1
1839-1842; Opium War #2
Treaty of Nanjing 1842
Established a treaty port in China
The British opened China to foreign trade
by imposing an unequal treaty
China had to agree to cede (give) Hong
Kong (and some other small islands) to
the British
Made China open ports for foreign trade
with LOW tariffs
Treaty of Nanjing-1842
1844- extraterritorial rights- opens four
ports to US and other foreign trade- no
Chinese laws
Christian missionaries get increased
opium trade continues
Are you excited about the
Treaty of Nanjing? Why or
why not?
Internal Problems
Population increase
430 in 1850- 30% increase in 60 years
hunger- flooding of farm areas- millions
Chinese gov’t -corrupt and ineffective
Taiping Rebellion (18501871)
 Taiping= “great peace”
 led by Hong Xiuquan- late 1840’s
influenced by Christian
missionaries- Christ’s brother?
wanted “ Heavenly Kingdom of
Great Peace”
 1853- 1 million joined army
 Captured city of Nanjing
 1864 – rebellion crushed
 20+ million people died- hunger and
China under the Dowager
Empress Cixi- 1861-1908
government call for reforms patterned on
Western ways
committed to traditional values
Update education system
Diplomatic service
hired foreigners to run arsenals
imported raw materials to build ships
imbalance of trade
Foreign influence
Treaties give control of economy to
Western powers
“Open Door Policy” (1898) suggested by
 US fears China will be divided between
Open China to trade from all countries
Guangxu (Dowager’s nephew)
modernizes China
“100 Days Reform” – put in place after
being defeated by Japan
Modern education (not just Confucianism)
Cixi ends reform (“too radical”) and
imprisons Guangxu
Guangxu Emperor
Boxer Rebellion (18981901)
Chinese tired of special privileges for
foreign powers and Christian missionaries
Society of Harmonious Fists- Boxers
1900- siege of Beijing
Empress supports Boxers but does not
send military aid
20,000 troops from many countries defeat
the Boxers
Nationalism emerges despite loss
Boxer Rebellion
From your perspective, what
good can come out of the
Boxer Rebellion?
End of an Empire
Cixi sends advisors to other countries
Constitutional government by 1917
Kuomintang- Nationalist Party
Sun Yixian (founder of Nationalist Party)
Overthrows Qing – establishes republic
Yuan Shikai
Military dictator
Dies 1916
Chiang Kai- Shek (know his name)
Takes over for Sun Yixian
Treaty of Versailles – end of
Japan (!!!???) gets Chinese territory
May Fourth Movement: mostly college
Anti- western- trade, power, and democracy
A reaction to getting shafted in the Treaty of
Some student leaders shift to the “left” –
Communist Party of China founded 1921.
Mao Zedong (know his name)
Civil War-1930