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Ohio Learning Standard #13
• Advances in Technology,
Communication & Transportation
improved lives, but also had
negative consequences
Like India, China was Prosperous
• Highly develop agriculture
- irrigation & canal system
- Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD)
• Small workshops produce
goods that China needed
= Self-sufficient economy
Little Interest in Foreign Trade
*Chinese regarded European goods as inferior
– bought few goods from Europe merchants
Port of Canton
• Despite pleas from other nations, China refused to
open other ports to foreigners – other than Canton
• Any trade with Chinese leaders had to include
trade of Gold & Silver … NOT currency!
Influence of Foreign Trade
• European merchants desire
to find a product Chinese
would buy in large quantities
• East India Co. discovered
product = Opium
Opium War
• Chinese Gov tried to stop the opium trade by
appealing to British - but pleas went unanswered,
and the quarrel over opium grew into a war
Treaty of Nanjing
• Trade treaty between United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland and the Qing Dynasty of China
• First of unequal treaties against the Chinese
because Britain had no obligations in return
• Five ports were opened for trade
• Britons allowed trade with anyone
• Communicate directly with local officials
• Qing government obligated to pay British
Gov 6 million silver dollars = Opium Trade
• Another $12 million in war reparations
Further Subjugation
• Treaty of Tientsin – ceded additional ports to
British control (Hong Kong) + allowed foreigners
freedom to travel in interior & spread religion
• Treaty of Wanghia – allowing Russia to have
access to northern ports & contol of Manchuria
• Sino-Japanese War – claiming control of Korea resulting in humiliating defeat for the Chinese
• Jiaozhou Bay – Germany gained control & given
exclusive mining & railroad rights
Conflicting Spheres of Influence
USA wants its slice of the pie
United States proposes a deal (Open Door Policy) allowing equal access for all foreign merchants
• On heels of getting Philippines from Spain
• Fearing further Japanese expansion/retribution
• Britain/France fearing further German/Russian
expansion going unchecked
Boxer Rebellion
• Groups of Chinese Buddhist Monks and other
traditionalists take to the streets (protest) pledging
to rid the country of "foreign devils"