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Imperialism in China
What were the causes of the Opium Wars?
China & The West p. 371
1. What was the basis of China’s self sufficiency?
2. What was China’s main crop & where was it grown?
3. What did the Spanish & Portuguese bring to China and
how did it effect the Chinese?
4. What other resources did China have?
The Opium Wars
• Little trade between China & the West, except for silk & tea for silver which
favored China
• British bring technology gifts to China, Chinese are unimpressed
• Next, British bring opium from India to China
• 1835: 12 million Chinese were hooked on the drug –
Chinese Qing Emperor tries to ban opium
• Emperor’s advisor complains to Britain’s Queen Victoria
• Queen ignores him and Britain
continues trading in Opium
• 1839: China tries to destroy British
opium. Britain starts “Opium Wars”
• Chinese lose the war
drugs to
our people!
•1842: Treaty of Nanjing gives 1) Britain island
of Hong Kong & 2) extraterritorial rights
(foreigners not subject to Chinese Law)
Poppy Plant
with it!
Geography App: The Opium Wars
What does each box in the graph represent?
How much did opium increase between 1770 & 1840?
Describe the route in which opium arrived in China?
Why was Singapore important to the British?
Why did the British government encourage opium trade?
Taiping Rebellion
• 1850: Hong Xiuquan recruits peasant army to remove Qing Government,
starting the Taiping Rebellion
• 1861: Qing Emp. dies, wife Cixi & sister Ci'an share throne
• 1864: Empress Cixi asks British & French to help defeat
Hong’s army - 20 million + killed during Taiping Rebellion
•Empress Cixi “owes” Britain & France but rest of Europe &
Japan want Spheres of Influence in China
• Fearing another “Scramble for Africa”, the US
negotiates the open door policy, which allowed all
nations trade with China
Imperialism in China Pol Cartoon
1. What are the Europeans doing to China?
2. Which countries seem at odds with each other?
3. Who else is involved and what is the reaction
of the Chinese?
The Boxer Rebellion
Tension grows between Cixi & C’ian over Open Door Policy
• C'ian’s son becomes Emperor at age 18, wants to end the
Open Door Policy
• He is arrested & Empress Cixi returns
•1900: Angry Chinese form the Boxers, began a revolt known as
the Boxer Rebellion – Britain & US intervene
•Although Boxers were beaten, Chinese know reform is needed