* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Imperialism Africa, British in India, Latin America, Opium wars, Open Door policy and Boxer Rebellion *Some pictures and information were taken from power points provided by Susan Pojer and Mrs. Wilkerson Source for Raw Materials Industrial Revolution Markets for Finished Goods European Nationalism Missionary Activity European Motives For Colonization Military & Naval Bases Social Darwinism Places to Dump Unwanted/ Excess Popul. European Racism “White Man’s Burden” Humanitarian Reasons Soc. & Eco. Opportunities Social Darwinism Empire Building in Africa • By the 1890s slavery was abolished in all MAJOR countries • Yet, European countries still focused on trade in Africa • They began to look at natural resources such as timber, hides, ivory, rubber, diamonds, etc. • Now European countries wanted completely control of trade areas so they began to annexincorporate a country within a state Africa in 1914 Empire Building in Africa • European countries goal was to exploit Africa of its resources • They did not want to teach the Africans new industries and often take advantage of the African leaders • In the 20th century African resentment turned into action. Many native Africans began to organize political parties and called for independence. Effects of Colonial Rule • Negative – – Lost control of lands and Independence – New diseases – Famines – Deaths due to resistance – Loss of traditional cultures – Artificial boundaries with disregard to kinship groups. • Positive + – Reduction of local warfare – Improved sanitation, hospital, and schools – Increased lifespan and literacy rates – African products on the international markets. Africa Map Use pages A38 and 343 in the textbook to label your map. You must color all bodies of water and make a key for each mother country. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Morocco Algeria Rio de oro French West Africa Sierra Leone Liberia Gold Coast Nigeria Kamerun Rio Muni Belgian Congo Angola German Southwest Africa Union of South Africa Bechuana Land Mozambique Southern Rhodesia • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northern Rhodesia Madagascar German East Africa British East Africa Uganda Ethiopia Italian Somaliland British Somaliland Anglo Egyptian Sudan French Equatorial Africa Egypt Libya Tunisia Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Arabian Sea Black Sea • Indian Ocean Mother Countries: Color code based on mother countries – Belgium – Great Britain – Germany – Italy – France – Portuguese – Spanish British Rule in India • British had gained control of India in the 7 years war • The British government had given control of India to the British East India Company. They were to be involved in India’s political and military affairs. • They had their own soldiers and forts. • Sepoys- were hired Indian soldiers. They were used to protect the companies interests in India. Sepoy Mutiny • 1857- The Great Rebellion (First War of Independence). • It was rumored that the British had given new bullets to the sepoy greased with cow and pig fat. This disturbed the Hindus that believed the cow to be sacred and the Muslims that believed the pig was taboo. • Sepoys refused to put the bullets in their guns and a revolt followed. • The revolt was finally crushed by the British even though they had been out numbered by the rebels. The sepoys that rebelled were not very organized and there were rivalries between the Hindus and the Muslims. Sepoy Mutiny continued.. • It was after this event that the British government took over control of India from the British East India Company. Ruled directly through a viceroy- a governor who ruled as a representative of a monarch. • 1876 Queen Victoria given the title of Empress of India and India becomes the “Jewel in the Crown”. Stability but with a price • Benefits– Stability and order – Honest and efficient government – New school system – Railroads – Telegraph – Postal service • Costs of British Rule– Introduction of British manufactured goods ruined local goods. – Collection of taxes by local officials called zamindars who raised them to high levels. – Food supplies were lowered as farmers switched crops. – Degrading control – Disrespected India’s culture Indian Caste System •Varnas- social classes Ruler; landowner Mohandas Gandhi • He was a Hindu that studied in London and was a lawyer. • He became active in the independence movement based on nonviolent resistance. He wanted the British to improve the lot of the poor and grant independence to India. • His movement would ultimately lead to Indian independence. His ideas of nonviolence were used by many famous leaders ex: Martin Luther King Jr. Nation Building in Latin America • Latin America was largely colonies under Spanish and Portuguese control. Nation Building in Latin America • Colonial Latin America was divided by social classes based on privilege: 1. Peninsulares- Spanish and Portuguese officials who lived in Latin America temporarily 2. Creoles- descendants of Europeans born in Latin America that lived here permanently 3. Mestizos- people of European and Indian descent who were largely servants and laborers • The creoles began to demand independence. Once they gained independence, the new Latin American countries were very unstable and began to depend economically on Western nations. • They would export natural resources to the US and Europe and import manufactured goods. US in Latin America • As a result of the Spanish-American war, Cuba becomes a US protectorate- political unit that depends on another government for its protection; an Puerto Rico is annexed into the US • President Theodore Roosevelt supports the Panama splitting from Colombia and becoming its own nation. • He does this because in return we gain control of a 10-mile strip that runs from coast to coast where we build the Panama canal. Panama Canal Then: Now: Opium Wars • Europeans had been trading with China for 200+ years, but were restricted to trading out of a small area called Canton • Britain had an unfavorable trade balance with China. Imported more goods then exported and as a result had to pay China silver. • Imported- Tea, silk, porcelain • Exported- cotton (was not enough to cover trading debt) • The British started trading Opium from India to China. – Highly addictive drug – High demand – Silver is now being paid to Britain – China made opium trade illegal Opium war continued • Chinese government blockaded Canton, the only trading outlet that European merchants were allowed to bring their goods into. They forced traders to surrender their chests of opium. • Leads to: – Opium War (1839-1842) – The British destroyed Chinese coastal and river forts. The Qing dynasty eventually made peace. • Results The Treaty of Nanjing (1842) – 5 coastal ports open to British trade – Limited taxes on imported British goods. – Pay for the costs of the war. – British get control of the island of Hong Kong. – Marked the beginning of the establishment of western influence in China. China • In the 1900s China was dominated by spheres of influence- areas where the imperial power had exclusive trading rights. Open Door Policy • US and Great Britain feared that other countries would overrun the country and the Chinese government would collapse. • John Hay, U.S. Secretary of state, proclaimed that all major states with economic interests in China should have equal access to the Chinese markets. • It reduced restrictions on the spheres of influence • Lessened fears that one country could have control over China Political Cartoon showing Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion • Boxer was name given to an organization called Harmonious Fists (Practiced shadow Boxing) • They were upset by the privileges given for foreigners and by Chinese Christians that had given up their native religion. • They started the Boxers Rebellion in protest to what was going on in China. • The spheres of influence allied and put down the boxer rebellion and forced the Chinese government to pay indemnity- payment for damages.