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Africa, British in India, Latin
America, Opium wars, Open Door
policy and Boxer Rebellion
*Some pictures and information were taken from power points provided by Susan
Pojer and Mrs. Wilkerson
Source for
Markets for
For Colonization
& Naval
Places to
Excess Popul.
Soc. & Eco.
Social Darwinism
Empire Building in Africa
• By the 1890s slavery was abolished in all
MAJOR countries
• Yet, European countries still focused on trade in
• They began to look at natural resources such as
timber, hides, ivory, rubber, diamonds, etc.
• Now European countries wanted completely
control of trade areas so they began to annexincorporate a country within a state
Empire Building in Africa
• European countries goal was to exploit
Africa of its resources
• They did not want to teach the Africans
new industries and often take advantage
of the African leaders
• In the 20th century African
resentment turned into
action. Many native
Africans began to organize
political parties and called
for independence.
Effects of Colonial Rule
• Negative –
– Lost control of lands
and Independence
– New diseases
– Famines
– Deaths due to
– Loss of traditional
– Artificial boundaries
with disregard to
kinship groups.
• Positive +
– Reduction of local
– Improved
sanitation, hospital,
and schools
– Increased lifespan
and literacy rates
– African products on
the international
Africa Map
Use pages A38 and 343 in the textbook to label your map. You must color all bodies
of water and make a key for each mother country.
Rio de oro
French West Africa
Sierra Leone
Gold Coast
Rio Muni
Belgian Congo
German Southwest Africa
Union of South Africa
Bechuana Land
Southern Rhodesia
Northern Rhodesia
German East Africa
British East Africa
Italian Somaliland
British Somaliland
Anglo Egyptian Sudan
French Equatorial Africa
Mediterranean Sea
Atlantic Ocean
Arabian Sea
Black Sea
• Indian Ocean
Mother Countries:
Color code based on mother
– Belgium
– Great Britain
– Germany
– Italy
– France
– Portuguese
– Spanish
British Rule in India
• British had gained control of India in the 7 years
• The British government had given control of
India to the British East India
Company. They were to be
involved in India’s political and
military affairs.
• They had their own soldiers
and forts.
• Sepoys- were hired Indian
soldiers. They were used to
protect the companies interests
in India.
Sepoy Mutiny
• 1857- The Great Rebellion (First War
of Independence).
• It was rumored that the British had given new
bullets to the sepoy greased with cow and pig
fat. This disturbed the Hindus that believed the
cow to be sacred and the Muslims that believed
the pig was taboo.
• Sepoys refused to put the bullets in their guns
and a revolt followed.
• The revolt was finally crushed by the British
even though they had been out numbered by the
rebels. The sepoys that rebelled were not very
organized and there were rivalries between the
Hindus and the Muslims.
Sepoy Mutiny continued..
• It was after this event that the British
government took over control of India from the
British East India Company. Ruled directly
through a viceroy- a governor who
ruled as a representative of a monarch.
• 1876 Queen Victoria given the title of Empress
of India and India
becomes the
“Jewel in the Crown”.
Stability but with a price
• Benefits– Stability and order
– Honest and efficient
– New school system
– Railroads
– Telegraph
– Postal service
• Costs of British Rule– Introduction of British
manufactured goods ruined
local goods.
– Collection of taxes by local
officials called zamindars
who raised them to high
– Food supplies were
lowered as farmers
switched crops.
– Degrading control
– Disrespected India’s
Indian Caste System
•Varnas- social classes
Ruler; landowner
Mohandas Gandhi
• He was a Hindu that studied in
London and was a lawyer.
• He became active in the
independence movement based
on nonviolent resistance. He
wanted the British to improve
the lot of the poor and grant
independence to India.
• His movement would ultimately
lead to Indian independence.
His ideas of nonviolence were
used by many famous leaders
ex: Martin Luther King Jr.
Nation Building in Latin America
Latin America
was largely colonies
under Spanish and
Portuguese control.
Nation Building in Latin America
• Colonial Latin America was divided by social classes
based on privilege:
1. Peninsulares- Spanish and Portuguese officials who lived in
Latin America temporarily
2. Creoles- descendants of Europeans born in Latin America that
lived here permanently
3. Mestizos- people of European and Indian descent who were
largely servants and laborers
• The creoles began to demand independence. Once they
gained independence, the new Latin American countries
were very unstable and began to depend economically
on Western nations.
• They would export natural resources to the US and
Europe and import manufactured goods.
US in Latin America
• As a result of the Spanish-American war, Cuba
becomes a US protectorate- political unit that
depends on another government for its
protection; an Puerto Rico is annexed into the
• President Theodore Roosevelt supports the
Panama splitting from Colombia and becoming
its own nation.
• He does this because in return we gain control
of a 10-mile strip that runs from coast to coast
where we build the Panama canal.
Panama Canal
Opium Wars
• Europeans had been trading with China for 200+ years,
but were restricted to trading out of a small area called
• Britain had an unfavorable trade balance with China.
Imported more goods then exported and as a result had
to pay China silver.
• Imported- Tea, silk, porcelain
• Exported- cotton (was not enough to cover trading debt)
• The British started trading Opium from India to China.
– Highly addictive drug
– High demand
– Silver is now being paid to Britain
– China made opium trade illegal
Opium war continued
• Chinese government blockaded Canton, the only trading
outlet that European merchants were allowed to bring
their goods into. They forced traders to surrender their
chests of opium.
• Leads to:
– Opium War (1839-1842)
– The British destroyed Chinese coastal and river forts.
The Qing dynasty eventually made peace.
• Results The Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
– 5 coastal ports open to British trade
– Limited taxes on imported British goods.
– Pay for the costs of the war.
– British get control of the island of Hong Kong.
– Marked the beginning of the establishment of western
influence in China.
• In the 1900s China was dominated by
spheres of influence- areas where the
imperial power had exclusive trading
Open Door Policy
• US and Great Britain feared that other countries
would overrun the country and the Chinese
government would collapse.
• John Hay, U.S. Secretary of state, proclaimed
that all major states with economic interests in
China should have equal access to the Chinese
• It reduced restrictions on the spheres of
• Lessened fears that one country could have
control over China
Political Cartoon showing Open Door Policy
Boxer Rebellion
• Boxer was name given to an
organization called
Harmonious Fists (Practiced
shadow Boxing)
• They were upset by the
privileges given for
foreigners and by Chinese
Christians that had given up
their native religion.
• They started the Boxers
Rebellion in protest to what
was going on in China.
• The spheres of influence
allied and put down the
boxer rebellion and forced
the Chinese government to
pay indemnity- payment for