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Transcript
Values, Ethics, and Advocacy
Ethics
 Ethics is the study of philosophical ideals of right
and wrong behavior. It is the study of good
conduct, character, and motives. (Iggy, pg.389)
 Ethics is the study of social morality and
philosophical reflection on society’s norms and
practices. It is the practical application of moral
philosophy and asks the question- “What should I
do in this situation?” (Burkhardt, pg. 29)
Ethical Terminology
 Autonomy- Refers to a person’s
independence
 Beneficence- Refers to taking positive
actions to help others.
 Nonmaleficence- “Do no harm”
 Justice- Refers to fairness
 Fidelity- Refers to keeping promises and
commitments
Ethics and Nursing
 Code of Ethics- Sets forth ideas of conduct within a group.
They are a set of ethical principles that are agreed upon
and accepted by members of a group.
 Can include:
– Expectations of group members
– Standards by which members operate
– Guidelines to help determine appropriate behavior and
help with determine answers when questions arise.
 What is the uses and limitations of a professional code of
ethics?
Ethics and Nursing
 Nursing Code of Ethics
– Has been formalized by at least 2 organizations, the
American Nurses Association (ANA) and the
International Council of Nurses (ICN). (Box 21-2, pg 391)
– Both organization’s Code of Ethics include the same
basic principles of responsibility, accountability,
confidentiality, advocacy, and veracity.
– Website for ANA- http://www.nursingworld.org
– Website for ICN- http://icn.ch/index
Values
 A value is a personal belief about the worth
of a given idea, attitude, custom,or object
that sets standards that influence behavior.
 Values are ideals, beliefs, customs, modes
of conduct, qualities, or goals that are highly
prized or preferred by individuals, groups, or
society.
Values Formation
 Values form and develop as a result of:
– Family
– Religion
– Social organizations
– Community
– Experiences
Values Clarification
 The process of becoming more conscious of
and naming what one values or considers
worthy. It involves understanding how our
values affect our thoughts and behaviors.
 Outcome of values clarification= self
awareness/ personal insight
Bioethics
 Bioethics is the practice of ethical
considerations in health care situations
 Give some examples of some health care
situations that have caused ethical
dilemmas, that have been in the news.
Bioethical Issues




Quality of life
Genetic screening
Futile care
Allocation of scarce resources: medical
technologies
 Allocation of scarce resources: the nursing
shortage
Processing an ethical dilemma
 1. Determine if issue is an ethical dilemma.
 2. Gather data relevant to issue.
 3. Examine and determine your own values
on the issue.
 4. Verbalize the problem.
 5. Consider possible courses of action.
 6. Negotiate the outcome.
 7. Evaluate the action.
Advocacy
 To advocate means to speak or write in support of
something or someone. An advocate is someone
who pleads another’s case.
 As nurse’s we advocate:
– By assisting client/ family in interpreting information
– By offering assistance to the client in decision making
and explaining the implications of the client’s decision
– By ensuring that the client receives appropriate care