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Transcript
Chapter 17/19.3 Review
1. Natural selection acts on _______________________.
2. Natural selection acts on the _______________________, not a single
gene.
3. A _______________________ is a group of individuals of the
___________ species that live in the same area and interbreed.
4. True or false? A gene pool consists of all genes including all the different
alleles, that are present in a population.
5. True or False? Allele frequency has to do with whether the allele is
dominant or recessive.
6. List the 3 sources of genetic/heritable variation.
7. A __________________________________ trait has 2 alleles, and can
only have _____________ phenotypes.
8. A trait controlled by two or more genes is a _____________________
trait. How many phenotypes does this produce?___________________.
This typically produces a ___________-______________ curve.
9. What are three ways natural selection can affect phenotype distribution?
10.
11. Directional selection occurs when
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
the environment controls which organisms will survive.
humans determine which organisms will survive.
the extremes of the population have a lesser chance to survive.
the extremes of the population have a better chance to survive.
the organisms on one extreme of the population have a better chance to
survive than those on the other extreme.
12.The random change in allele frequency within a small population is called?
13.Genetic equilibrium is another way to state the
_______________________ principle.
14.In population genetics, a _________________________occurs when the
effective population size sharply decreases to a small percentage of the
original. The immediate is a decrease genetic diversity.
15.Write the Hardy-Weinberg principle as a mathematics equation.
16.
17.The process that creates new species is _______________________.
18.List 3 types of reproductive isolation:
19.Speciation in Darwin’s Finches:
Founders arrive on the Galapagos
Separation of populations
Changes in the gene pools of each population
Reproductive Isolation
Ecological Competition
Continued Evolution
20.Earths early atmosphere was composed of
__________________________.
21.Observations supporting Endosymbiotic theory:
1. Size & Structure – mitochondria are about the same size as most bacteria & its
membrane is like that of aerobic bacteria
2. Genetic material- mitochondria & chloroplasts have circular DNA similar to
bacterial DNA & genes different from nuclear DNA
3. Ribosomes in mitochondria & chloroplasts have similar size & structure of
bacterial DNA
4. Reproduction- Like bacteria, mitochondria & chloroplasts reproduce by binary
fission; Takes place independently of cell cycle of the host cell
22. Endosymbiotic theory states chloroplasts came from ______________________ and
mitochondria evolved from____________________________.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Phenotypes
Organism
Population/species
True
False
Mutation; genetics recombination (independent assortment, crossing-over,
some alleles from dad and some from mom.), lateral gene transfer
(transformation)
7. Single-gene; 2 or 3
8. Polygenic/many/bell-shaped
9. Directional Selection
Stabilizing Selection
Disruptive Selection
10.3 examples
11.E.
12.Genetic drift
13.Hardy-Weinberg
14.population bottleneck
15. Hardy Weinberg equation
16.See slide
17.Speciation….key part is reproductive isolation
18.
19. slide
20. hydrogen cyanide, CO2, CO, N2, hydrogen sulfide, H2O vapor
21. Size & Structure – mitochondria are about the same size as most bacteria & its membrane is
like that of aerobic bacteria
Genetic material- mitochondria & chloroplasts have circular DNA similar to bacterial DNA &
genes different from nuclear DNA
Ribosomes in mitochondria & chloroplasts have similar size & structure of bacterial DNA
Reproduction- Like bacteria, mitochondria & chloroplasts reproduce by binary fission; Takes
place independently of cell cycle of the host cell
22. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes which were photosynthetic/ endosymbiotic prokaryotes that used
oxygen
1. If 56 out of 300 individuals in a population express the recessive phenotype,
A. What percent of the population are homozygous dominant?
B. What is the frequency of the heterozygous individuals?
C. What is the frequency of dominant allele?
D. What is the frequency of the recessive allele?