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CHE 4310 Spring 2013
Biochemistry Quiz Review V
1. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex performs complex functions in the cell. What are all
of the reactants and products of the PDC? Then, name three molecules that inhibit the activity
of the PDC.
2. Show the three reactions in the citric acid cycle in which NADH is produced, including the
structures. None of these reactions involves molecular oxygen (O2), but all three reactions
are strongly inhibited by anaerobic conditions; explain why.
3. You are in charge of genetically engineering a new bacterium that will derive all of its ATP
from sunlight by photosynthesis. Will you put the enzymes of the citric acid cycle in this
organism? Briefly explain why or why not.
4. Glucose labeled with 14C in C-3 and C-4 is completely converted to acetyl-CoA via
glycolysis and the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. What percentage of the acetyl-CoA
molecules formed will be labeled with 14C, and in which position of the acetyl moiety will the
C label be found?
5. What is the reaction of the citric acid cycle that is most similar to the pyruvate
dehydrogenase complex-catalyzed conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA?
6. The conversion of 1 mol of pyruvate to 3 mol of CO2 via pyruvate dehydrogenase and the
citric acid cycle yields what amount of NADH, FADH2, and ATP?
7. Glycolysis takes place primarily in the __________________, while the citric acid cycle
takes place primarily in the __________________.
8. Completing reactions. Fill in the blanks for each reaction with reactants, enzyme, or
Succinate dehydrogenase
dehydrogenase complex
Triose phosphate isomerase
9. The majority of the oxygen we breathe in is ultimately converted into what molecule? What
enzyme or complex performs this reaction?
10. If Antimycin A were added to a suspension of intact mitochondria, along with an excess of
NADH and O2, what molecule would you expect to build up in high excess? Why?
11. In Complex III of the electron transport chain, coenzyme QH2 is oxidized to coenzyme Q.
What happens to the electrons that were on QH2? Why does the “Q Cycle” require 2
molecules of QH2 per cycle?
12. Explain what is meant by the term “electrochemical gradient” as it relates to electron
transfer and oxidative phosphorylation.
13. What is the role of thermogenin in brown fat? What class of compound is thermogenin?
14. Briefly explain the mechanism of ATP synthase. What drives this reaction? What are the
reactants and products?
15. Using a simple diagram of the chemiosmotic theory, explain why anything that makes the
mitochondrial membrane leaky stops ATP synthesis in the mitochondria.
16. What reaction does a lipase enzyme catalyze?
17. Once a fatty acyl-CoA is created, what is the sequence of the remaining enzymes that will
act on it in one round of β-oxidation?
18. For palmityl-CoA (which contains 16 carbons in the fatty chain), what would be the total
ATP yield if it is oxidized completely to carbon dioxide and water?
19. Which would yield more energy upon complete oxidation: a saturated or unsaturated fatty
20. Ketone bodies are largely formed in what tissue? What are the most common ketone
21. If a patient came in for a routine physical, but their blood test indicated a low blood pH and
their breath had an uncharacteristic sweet smell, what disease might the patient have?
22. Stomach peptidases are produced largely as zymogens. Why is this the case?
23. The removal of the amino group from amino acids requires what cofactor? What molecule
accepts this amino group, and what is the final product?
24. Carbamoyl phosphate is produced from which reactants?
25. The conversion of ornithine into citrulline in the urea cycle is analogous to what reaction
of the citric acid cycle?
26. The carbon in urea is highly oxidized. Why does this make metabolic sense?
27. When alanine is transaminated, what is the resulting product?
28. There are many molecules used to transfer electrons in biological systems. Name three.