Download Lecture9-Chap24

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Therapeutic gene modulation wikipedia, lookup

RNA interference wikipedia, lookup

Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases wikipedia, lookup

RNA silencing wikipedia, lookup

Artificial gene synthesis wikipedia, lookup

RNA-Seq wikipedia, lookup

Nucleic acid tertiary structure wikipedia, lookup

Frameshift mutation wikipedia, lookup

RNA wikipedia, lookup

Point mutation wikipedia, lookup

History of RNA biology wikipedia, lookup

Polyadenylation wikipedia, lookup

RNA-binding protein wikipedia, lookup

Expanded genetic code wikipedia, lookup

Non-coding RNA wikipedia, lookup

Primary transcript wikipedia, lookup

Genetic code wikipedia, lookup

Messenger RNA wikipedia, lookup

Transfer RNA wikipedia, lookup

Epitranscriptome wikipedia, lookup

Ribosome wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Two Hybrid
Chapter 24
Translation
24.1 Introduction
Figure 24.01: Size comparisons show that
the ribosome is large enough to bind
tRNAs and mRNA.
Figure 24.02: Ribosomes are large
ribonucleoprotein particles that contain more
RNA than protein and dissociate into large and
small subunits.
24.2 Translation Occurs by
Initiation, Elongation, and
Termination
• The ribosome has three
tRNA-binding sites.
• An aminoacyl-tRNA enters
the A site.
• Peptidyl-tRNA is bound in
the P site.
• Deacylated tRNA exits via
the E site.
Figure 24.03: The ribosome has
two sites for binding charged
tRNA.
24.2 Translation Occurs by Initiation,
Elongation, and Termination
• An amino acid is added to the polypeptide chain by
transferring the polypeptide from peptidyl-tRNA in the P
site to aminoacyl-tRNA in the A site (translocation).
Figure 24.05: Aminoacyl-tRNA enters the A site, receives the polypeptide chain from
peptidyl-tRNA, and is transferred into the P site.
24.2 Translation Occurs by Initiation,
Elongation, and Termination
• initiation – The stages of translation up to synthesis of
the first peptide bond of the polypeptide.
• elongation – The stage of translation in which the
polypeptide chain is extended by the addition of
individual subunits.
• termination – A separate reaction that ends translation
by stopping the addition of subunits and (typically)
causing disassembly of the synthetic apparatus.
24.2 Translation Occurs by Initiation,
Elongation, and Termination
Figure 24.07: Translation has three stages.
24.3 Special Mechanisms Control the
Accuracy of Translation
• The accuracy of
translation is controlled
by specific mechanisms
at each stage.
Figure 24.08: Errors occur at rates from 10–6
to 5 10–4 at different stages of translation.
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs)
 tRNAs are adapters
between amino acids and
the codons in mRNA
molecules.
 The anticodon of the
tRNA base pairs with the
codon of mRNA.
 The amino acid is
covalently attached to the
3’ end of the tRNA.
 tRNAs often contain
modified nucleosides.
What is Inosine?
Inosine
The Wobble Hypothesis:
Base-Pairing Involving the Third
Base of the Codon is Less Stringent.
Base-Pairing with Inosine at
the Wobble Position
Suppressor Mutations
Some mutations in tRNA genes alter the
anticodons and therefore the codons
recognized by the mutant tRNAs.
These mutations were initially detected as
suppressor mutations that suppressed the
effects of other mutations.
Example: tRNA mutations that suppress
amber mutations (UAG chain-termination
mutations) in the coding sequence of genes.
Making a (UAG) Mutation
Translation of an amber (UAG)
Mutation in the Absence of a
Suppressor tRNA
Translation of an amber Mutation in
the Presence of a Suppressor tRNA
Note it is amber su3…why?????????
Translation of an amber Mutation in
the Presence of a Suppressor tRNA
If there was a single tRNATyr gene, then could one
have a amber supressor of it?
24.4 Initiation in Bacteria Needs 30S
Subunits and Accessory Factors
• ribosome-binding site – A sequence on bacterial
mRNA that includes an initiation codon that is bound by
a 30S subunit in the initiation phase of polypeptide
translation.
Figure 24.09: Initiation requires free
ribosome subunits.
24.4 Initiation in Bacteria Needs 30S
Subunits and Accessory Factors
• Shine–Dalgarno sequence – The polypurine
sequence AGGAGG centered about 10 bp
before the AUG initiation codon on bacterial
mRNA.
– It is complementary to the sequence at the 3′ end of
16S rRNA.
24.4 Initiation in Bacteria Needs 30S
Subunits and Accessory Factors
• Initiation of translation
requires separate 30S
and 50S ribosome
subunits.
• Initiation factors (IF-1,
IF-2, and IF-3), which
bind to 30S subunits, are
also required.
Figure 24.10: Initiation factors stabilize free 30S
subunits and bind initiator tRNA to the 30S-mRNA
complex.
24.4 Initiation in Bacteria Needs 30S
Subunits and Accessory Factors
• A 30S subunit carrying
initiation factors binds to
an initiation site on mRNA
to form an initiation
complex.
• IF-3 must be released to
allow 50S subunits to join
the 30S-mRNA complex.
Figure 24.11: Initiation requires 30S
subunits that carry IF-3.
24.5 Initiation Involves Base Pairing
Between mRNA and rRNA
• An initiation site on bacterial mRNA consists of the AUG
initiation codon preceded by the Shine–Dalgarno
polypurine hexamer ~10 bases upstream.
• The rRNA of the 30S bacterial ribosomal subunit has a
complementary sequence that base pairs with the
Shine–Dalgarno sequence during initiation.
24.5 Initiation Involves Base Pairing
Between mRNA and rRNA
Figure 24.12: Ribosome-binding sites on
mRNA can be recovered from initiation
complexes.
24.6 A Special Initiator tRNA Starts the
Polypeptide Chain
• Translation starts with a methionine amino acid usually
encoded by AUG.
• Different methionine tRNAs are involved in initiation and
elongation.
24.6 A Special Initiator tRNA Starts the
Polypeptide Chain
• N-formyl-methionyl-tRNA (tRNAfMet ) – The
aminoacyl-tRNA that initiates bacterial
polypeptide translation.
– The amino group of the methionine is formylated.
24.6 A Special Initiator tRNA Starts the
Polypeptide Chain
Figure 24.14: The initiator N-formylmethionyl-tRNA is generated by formylation
of methionyl-tRNA, using formyltetrahydrofolate as cofactor.
Figure 24.15: fMet-tRNAf has unique
features that distinguish it as the
initiator tRNA.
24.6 A Special Initiator tRNA Starts the
Polypeptide Chain
• tRNAmMet – The bacterial tRNA that inserts methionine at
internal AUG codons.
• The initiator tRNA has unique structural features that
distinguish it from all other tRNAs.
• The NH2 group of the methionine bound to bacterial
initiator tRNA is formylated.
24.7 Use of fMet-tRNAf Is Controlled by IF-2
and the Ribosome
• context – The fact that
neighboring sequences
may change the
efficiency with which a
codon is recognized by its
aminoacyl-tRNA or is
used to terminate
polypeptide translation.
Figure 24.16: Only fMet-tRNAf can be used for
initiation by 30S subunits; other aminoacyltRNAs must be used for elongation by 70S
ribosomes.
24.7 Use of fMet-tRNAf Is Controlled by IF-2
and the Ribosome
• IF-2 binds the initiator
fMet-tRNAf and allows it to
enter the partial P site on
the 30S subunit.
Figure 24.17: IF-2 is needed to bind fMet-tRNAf
to the 30S-mRNA complex. After 50S binding, all
IF factors are released and GTP is cleaved.
24.8 Small Subunits Scan for Initiation Sites
on Eukaryotic mRNA
• Eukaryotic 40S ribosomal subunits bind to the 5′ end of
mRNA and scan the mRNA until they reach an initiation
site.
• A eukaryotic initiation site consists of a 10-nucleotide
sequence that includes an AUG codon.
• 60S ribosomal subunits join the complex at the initiation
site.
24.8 Small Subunits Scan for Initiation Sites
on Eukaryotic mRNA
Figure 24.18: Eukaryotic ribosomes migrate
from the 5 end of mRNA to the initiation
site, which includes an AUG initiation
codon.
24.8 Small Subunits Scan for Initiation Sites
on Eukaryotic mRNA
• internal ribosome entry site (IRES) – A eukaryotic
messenger RNA sequence that allows a ribosome to
initiate polypeptide translation without migrating from the
5′ end.
24.9 Eukaryotes Use a Complex of Many
Initiation Factors
Figure 24.19: Some initiation factors
bind to the 40S ribosome subunit to
form the 43S preinitiation complex;
others bind to mRNA.
• Initiation factors are required
for all stages of initiation,
including binding the initiator
tRNA, 40S subunit attachment
to mRNA, movement along the
mRNA, and joining of the 60S
subunit.
• Eukaryotic initiator tRNA is a
Met-tRNA that is different from
the Met-tRNA used in
elongation, but the methionine
is not formylated.
24.9 Eukaryotes Use a Complex of Many
Initiation Factors
• eIF2 binds the initiator MettRNAi and GTP, forming a
ternary complex that binds to
the 40S subunit before it
associates with mRNA.
• A cap-binding complex binds
to the 5′ end of mRNA prior to
association of the mRNA with
the 40S subunit.
Figure 24.21: Initiation factors bind the
initiator Met-tRNA to the 40S subunit
to form a 43S complex.
24.10 Elongation Factor Tu Loads
Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A Site
• EF-Tu (an elongation factor) is a monomeric G protein
whose active form (bound to GTP) binds to aminoacyl-tRNA.
• The EF-Tu-GTP-aminoacyl-tRNA complex binds to the
ribosome’s A site.
Figure 24.25: EF-Tu-GTP places
aminoacyl-tRNA on the ribosome and
then is released as EF-Tu-GDP.
24.10 Elongation Factor Tu Loads
Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A Site
• GMP-PCP – An analog of GTP that cannot be
hydrolyzed.
– It is used to test which stage in a reaction requires
hydrolysis of GTP.
• kirromycin – An antibiotic that inhibits protein
synthesis by acting on EF-Tu.
24.11 The Polypeptide Chain Is Transferred
to Aminoacyl-tRNA
• The 50S subunit has peptidyl transferase activity as
provided by an rRNA ribozyme.
• The nascent polypeptide chain is transferred from
peptidyl-tRNA in the P site to aminoacyl-tRNA in the A
site.
• Peptide bond synthesis generates deacylated tRNA in
the P site and peptidyl-tRNA in the A site.
24.11 The Polypeptide Chain Is Transferred
to Aminoacyl-tRNA
Figure 24.26: Peptide bond formation.
24.11 The Polypeptide Chain Is Transferred
to Aminoacyl-tRNA
• puromycin – An antibiotic
that terminates protein
synthesis by mimicking a
tRNA and becoming linked
to the nascent protein
chain.
Figure 24.27: Puromycin mimics aminoacyl-tRNA because it
resembles an aromatic amino acid linked to a sugar-base
moiety.
24.12 Translocation Moves the Ribosome
• Ribosomal translocation
moves the mRNA through
the ribosome by three
bases.
• Translocation moves
deacylated tRNA into the E
site and peptidyl-tRNA into
the P site and empties the
A site.
Figure 24.28: A bacterial ribosome has three tRNAbinding sites.
24.12 Translocation Moves the Ribosome
• The hybrid state model
proposes that translocation
occurs in two stages, in
which the 50S moves
relative to the 30S and then
the 30S moves along mRNA
to restore the original
conformation.
Figure 24.29: Models for
translocation involve two stages.
24.13 Elongation Factors Bind Alternately to
the Ribosome
• Translocation requires EF-G, whose structure resembles
the aminoacyl-tRNA-EF-Tu-GTP complex.
• Binding of EF-Tu and EF-G to the ribosome is mutually
exclusive.
• Translocation requires GTP hydrolysis, which triggers a
change in EF-G, which in turn triggers a change in
ribosome structure.
24.13 Elongation Factors Bind Alternately to
the Ribosome
Figure 24.30: Binding of factors EF-Tu and EF-G
alternates as ribosomes accept new aminoacyltRNA, form peptide bonds, and translocate.
24.14 Three Codons Terminate Translation
• The stop codons UAA (ochre), UAG (amber), and UGA
(opal) terminate translation.
• In bacteria, they are used most often with relative
frequencies UAA>UGA>UAG.
24.14 Three Codons Terminate Translation
• premature termination – The termination of
protein or of RNA synthesis before the chain has
been completed.
– In translation it can be caused by mutations that
create stop codons within the coding region.
– In RNA synthesis it is caused by various events that
act on RNA polymerase.
24.15 Termination Codons Are Recognized
by Protein Factors
• Termination codons are
recognized by protein release
factors, not by aminoacyltRNAs.
• RF1 – The bacterial release
factor that recognizes UAA and
UAG as signals to terminate
polypeptide translation.
• RF2 – The bacterial release
factor that recognizes UAA and
UGA as signals to terminate
polypeptide translation.
Figure 24.32: Molecular mimicry.
24.15 Termination Codons Are Recognized
by Protein Factors
• RF3 – A polypeptide
translation termination
factor related to the
elongation factor EF-G.
Figure 24.33: The eukaryotic
termination factor eRF1 has a
structure that mimics tRNA.
– It functions to release the
factors RF1 or RF2 from the
ribosome when they act to
terminate polypeptide
translation.
• The structures of the class 1
release factors (RF1 and RF2 in
E. coli) resemble aminoacyltRNA-EF-Tu and EF-G.
24.15 Termination Codons Are Recognized
by Protein Factors
• The class 1 release factors respond to specific
termination codons and hydrolyze the polypeptide-tRNA
linkage.
• The class 1 release factors are assisted by class 2
release factors (such as RF3) that depend on GTP.
• The mechanism is similar in bacteria (which have two
types of class 1 release factors) and eukaryotes (which
have only one class 1 release factor).
24.15 Termination Codons Are Recognized
by Protein Factors
Figure 24.35: The RF (release factor) terminates translation by releasing the protein chain.
24.15 Termination Codons Are Recognized
by Protein Factors
Figure 24.36: Functional homologies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation factors.
24.16 Ribosomal RNA Pervades Both
Ribosomal Subunits
Figure 24.37: The 30S subunit has a head
separated by a neck from the body, with a
protruding platform.
Figure 24.38: The 50S subunit has a central
protuberance where 5S rRNA is located,
separated by a notch from a stalk made of
copies of protein L7.
Figure 24.39: The platform of the
30S subunit fits into the notch of
the 50S subunit to form the 70S
ribosome.
24.16 Ribosomal RNA Pervades Both
Ribosomal Subunits
• Each rRNA has several distinct domains that fold
independently.
• Virtually all ribosomal proteins are in contact with rRNA.
Figure 24.42: Contacts between the ribosomal subunits are mostly made by RNA (shown
in purple).
Photo courtesy of Harry Noller, University of
California, Santa Cruz.
24.16 Ribosomal RNA Pervades Both
Ribosomal Subunits
• Most of the contacts between ribosomal subunits are
made between the 16S and 23S rRNAs.
Figure 24.41: Contact points between the rRNAs are located in two domains of 16S rRNA
and one domain of 23S rRNA.
Reproduced from M. M. Yusupov, et al., Science 292 (2001): 883-896
[http://www.sciencemag.org]. Reprinted with permission from AAAS. Photo
courtesy of Harry Noller, University of California, Santa Cruz.
24.17 Ribosomes Have Several Active
Centers
• Interactions involving rRNA are a key part of ribosome
function.
• The environment of the tRNA-binding sites is largely
determined by rRNA.
Figure 24.45: The ribosome has
several active centers.
24.18 16S rRNA Plays an Active Role in
Translation
• 16S rRNA plays an
active role in the
functions of the 30S
subunit.
– It directly interacts with
mRNA, the 50S subunit,
and the anticodons of
tRNAs in the P and A
sites.
Figure 24.46: Some sites in 16S rRNA are
protected from chemical probes when
50S subunits join 30S subunits or
aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the A site.
24.19 23S rRNA Has Peptidyl Transferase
Activity
• Peptidyl transferase
activity resides
exclusively in the 23S
rRNA.
Figure 24.49: Peptide bond formation requires
acid-base catalysis in which an H atom is
transferred to a basic residue.
24.20 Ribosomal Structures Change When
the Subunits Come Together
• The head of the 30S subunit swivels around the neck
when complete ribosomes are formed.
• The peptidyl transferase active site of the 50S subunit is
more active in complete ribosomes than in individual 50S
subunits.
• The interface between the 30S and 50S subunits is very
rich in solvent contacts.
24.21 Translation Can Be Regulated
• Translation can be regulated by the 5′ UTR of the mRNA.
• Translation may be regulated by the abundance of various
tRNAs (codon usage).
• A repressor protein can regulate translation by preventing
a ribosome from binding to an initiation codon.
Figure 24.50: A regulator protein may
block translation by binding to a site on
mRNA that overlaps the ribosome-binding
site at the initiation codon.
24.21 Translation Can Be Regulated
• Accessibility of initiation
codons in a polycistronic
mRNA can be controlled by
changes in the structure of
the mRNA that occur as the
result of translation.
Figure 24.52: Secondary structure can control initiation.
24.22 The Cycle of Bacterial Messenger
RNA
• Transcription and translation occur simultaneously in
bacteria (called coupled transcription/translation) as
ribosomes begin translating an mRNA before its
synthesis has been completed.
• Bacterial mRNA is unstable and has a half-life of only a
few minutes.
24.22 The Cycle of Bacterial Messenger
RNA
Figure 24.53: mRNA is transcribed, translated, and
degraded simultaneously in bacteria.
24.22 The Cycle of Bacterial Messenger
RNA
• nascent RNA – A ribonucleotide chain that is still being
synthesized, so that its 3' end is paired with DNA where
RNA polymerase is elongating.
• monocistronic mRNA – mRNA that encodes one
protein.
• A bacterial mRNA may be polycistronic in having
several coding regions that represent different cistrons.
24.22 The Cycle of Bacterial Messenger RNA
• intercistronic region – The distance between the termination
codon of one gene and the initiation codon of the next gene.
Figure 24.55: Bacterial mRNA includes untranslated as well as translated regions.