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Transcript
```Algebra 1:
Topic 1 Notes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Order of Operations & Evaluating Expressions
The Real Number System
Properties of Real Numbers
Basic Exponent Properties
One & Two-Step Equations
Basic Multi-Step Equations
Order of Operations
& Evaluating
Expressions
Review: Order of Operations
Excuse- Exponents
My- Multiplication
Dear- Division
Sally- Subtraction
Review: Order of Operations
Remember that Multiplication and
Division are a pair…do in order from
left to right.
Addition and Subtraction are also a
pair….do in order from left to right.
Review: “Evaluate”
• Evaluating an expression means to plug in!
• For example:
2n + 4 for n = 3
2(3) + 4
10
Let’s Practice…
Evaluate the following expressions.
1. 3r – 17 for r = 6
2. 10 – 6d for d = 4
3. 5g + 20 – (4g) for g = 5
4. (3 + p)2 – 2p for p = 7
The Real Number
System:
Numbers Have
Names?!?!
Natural Numbers
• Non-decimal, positive numbers starting with
one.
Whole Numbers
• Non-decimal, positive numbers and zero.
Integers
• Non-decimal
positive and
negative numbers,
including zero.
Rational Numbers
• Any number that can be expressed as the
𝑝
quotient or fraction of two integers.
𝑞
• YES:
– Any integers
– Any decimals that
ends or repeats
– Any fraction
• NO:
– Never ending decimals
Irrational Numbers
• Any number that can not be expressed as a
fraction.
• Usually a never-ending, non-repeating
decimal.
• Examples:
𝜋
2, 5
1.2658945625692….
Let’s Practice…
Rational or Irrational.
1.
2
17
2.
3.
4.
22
3
27
1
3
Properties of
Real Numbers
List of Properties of Real
Numbers
•
•
•
•
•
Commutative
Associative
Distributive
Identity
Inverse
Commutative Properties
Definition: Changing the order of the
numbers in addition or multiplication will
not change the result.
Commutative Properties
Property
Multiplication
Numbers
Algebra
Associative Properties
Definition: Changing the
grouping of the numbers
multiplication will not
change the result.
Associative Properties
Property
Multiplication
Numbers
Algebra
Distributive Property
ab  c   ab  ac
32  5  3  2  3  5
Definition: Zero preserves identities under
number does not change its value.
Example:
Multiplicative Identity
Property
Definition: The number 1 preserves
identities under multiplication. In other
words, multiplying a number by 1 does not
change the value of the number.
Example:
Definition: For each real number a there
exists a unique real number –a such that
their sum is zero. In other words, opposites
Example:
Multiplicative Inverse
Property
Definition: For each real number a there
1
exists a unique real number
1 𝑎 such that their
product is 1.
a
Example:
Simplifying
1. Make a factor tree of the radicand.
2. Circle all final factor pairs.
3. All circled pairs move outside the radical and
become single value.
4. Multiply all values outside radical.
5. Multiply all final factors that were not circled.
Let’s Practice…
1. 225
2. 300
Let’s Practice…
3.
1
49
4. 120
How to Simplify Cubed
1. Make a factor tree of the radicand.
2. Circle all final factor groups of three.
3. All circled groups of three move outside the
4. Multiply all values outside radical.
5. Multiply all final factors that were not circled.
Let’s Practice…
3
1. 375
3
2. 64
Let’s Practice…
3
3. 81
3
4. 256
Exponents
Definition: Exponent
• The exponent of a number says how many
times to use that number in a multiplication.
It is written as a small number to the right
and above the base number.
The Zero Exponent Rule
• Any number (excluding zero) to the zero
power is always equal to one.
• Examples:
 1000=1
 1470=1
 550 =1
Negative Power Rule
Let’s Practice…
1. 5-2
2.
3 −2
4
3. (-3)-3
The One Exponent Rule
• Any number (excluding zero) to the first power
is always equal to that number.
• Examples:
 a1 = a
 71 = 7
 531 = 53
Simplifying Exponential
Expressions
Step 1: Simplify (get rid of negatives and
fractions, where possible).
Step 2: Plug in.
Let’s Practice…
8b3
4a−2
1. 4m3j-2
2.
for m = -2 and j = 3
for b = 2 and a = 3
Solving 2-step
Equations
Inverse Operations Pairs
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Exponents
How to Solve 2-Step Equations
1. Use the opposite operation to move
the letters to the left and numbers to
the right.
2. Divide to get the variable alone.
Example
5x - 18 = 22
Let’s Practice…
1. 10x – 7 = 77
2. 15 – 3m = 45
Let’s Practice…
3. 4y = 3y + 12
4. 9b = 17 – 8b
Fractions…
To get rid of fractions, multiply all other
values by the reciprocal!
Example: k  6  2
4
Let’s Practice…
m
14

 24
1.
10
2. 3 −
2
x
5
=6
Solving
Multi-Step
Equations
How to solve Multi-Step Equations
1. Distribute.
Bonus Step: Multiply by reciprocal/LCM, if fractions.
2. Combine Like Terms (ONLY on same side of
equal sign).
3. Use the inverse operation to move numbers
to the right.
4. Use the inverse operation to move variables
to the left.
5. Divide.
Example
3(4x – 10) = 26
Example
6(4 + 3x) - 10x = 30 - 2x
Example
1
x – 8 = 4 + 2x
5
Let’s Practice…
4(5 + 2x) + 7x = -5
Let’s Practice…
3
𝑥
2
+6=−
7
2
+ 5𝑥
```
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