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Transcript
Pearson
Edexcel AS and A Level
in History
SCHEME OF WORK
Route A: Conquest, control and resistance in the medieval world
Introduction
Introduction
This document provides a sample outline scheme of work for Route A: Conquest, control and resistance in the medieval world
that should be adapted by centres to fit their timetabling and staffing arrangements. It is meant as an example approach only and is
not intended to be prescriptive.
For the purposes of this scheme of work, it has been assumed that the centre is teaching Paper 1 at the start of the course and then
Paper 2. The scheme assumes 32 teaching weeks in each year to allow for time taken by other events. As Paper 3 is worth 30% of the
A level (60% of AS) it has been allocated proportionally more of the teaching time, running from week 1 to halfway through week 19.
Paper 2 – 20% of A level (40% of AS) – runs from week 19 to week 32. The separate Course planner document provides a range of
examples of delivery options that can be used for planning alongside this document.
Paper 1 The crusades, c1095–1204
Two possible approaches to delivering Paper 1 are given below. The first approach is thematic (page 3) and follows the order in which
the content is set out in the specification. The second approach (page 8) has the content arranged mainly chronologically, with time at
the end to revisit and consolidate the themes.
Paper 2
The schemes of work for the two Paper 2 options in this route then follow, so that centres can select the one they have chosen.
2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, c1053–1106: page 12
2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89: page 17
Suggested resources
The resources column suggests existing resources for these topics. A fuller list of resources is provided in the separate Route A topic
booklet. As new resources for this specification are published, this scheme of work will be updated.
2
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Thematic approach
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Thematic approach
Week
Scheme
Content
Suggested resources
1
Introductions
Introduction to the course.
Route overview and Paper 1
overview from Route A topic
booklet.
Introduction to Paper 1 and Paper 2: reasons for studying those two
topics.
2
Background/context to thematic link and background to the crusades
c1095–1204.
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley,
The Crusades (Hodder, 2013).
Chapter 1 provides a brief overview
of the period.
Paper 1
Religious motives including:
Theme 1:
Reasons for the
crusades, 1095–
1192
●
the concept of ‘just war’
●
the impact of the papal reform movement on ideas of penance and
remission of sins
●
guarantees of plenary indulgence
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Oxford
Illustrated History of the Crusades
(Oxford University Press, 2001).
Chapter 2 provide an in-depth
examination of the motivations for
the crusades.
●
the aim of freeing Jerusalem
●
the influence of preachers, including Bernard of Clairvaux.
Suggested activity: An assessment of the significance of the role of
Urban II in the First Crusade.
3
Theme 1
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
Political motives including:
●
threats to the Byzantine Empire
●
Alexius I Comnenus’s appeal to Urban II
●
the political ambitions of the papacy
●
Urban’s political problems in Germany and France
●
violence and growing disorder in Europe
3
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Thematic approach
4
Theme 1
●
the Second and Third Crusades and the defence of the crusader
states.
The knights and the crusade including:
5
Theme 1
●
the nature of knighthood in the late eleventh century and the
development of the concept of chivalry
●
protecting Christianity and pilgrims
●
settlement in the crusader states and the acquisition of wealth.
Suggested activity: An examination of the changing motives and the
reasons for change.
Theme 2:
Leadership of the
crusades, 1095–
1192
6
Theme 2
The leadership of the First Crusade including:
●
the eight princes and their motivations and their changing
priorities
●
Baldwin’s conquest of Edessa 1097
●
Bohemund’s seizure of Antioch 1098
●
emergence of Godfrey of Bouillon as leader and the capture of
Jerusalem 1099.
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley,
The Crusades (Hodder, 2013).
Provides an accessible examination
of the roles of the different leaders
in the crusades.
The leadership of the Second Crusade including:
7
4
Theme 2
●
rivalry between Louis VIII and Conrad III – personal and political
rivalries and tensions
●
their relationship with Manual I
●
the failure to consult the leaders of the crusader states
●
failure of Damascus 1148 and the end of the crusade.
The leadership of the Third Crusade including:
●
the significance of the death of Frederick Barbarossa
●
the rivalries of Richard I and Philip II
●
Richard’s decision to attack Sicily and Cyprus
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Thematic approach
8
Theme 2
●
Philip’s return to France
●
Richard’s leadership at Acre and Jaffa
●
Reasons for Richard’s decision not to attack Jerusalem.
Suggested activity: An assessment of the effectiveness of the leaders
of the crusade.
9
Theme 3: The
crusader states of
Outremer, 1100–
92
Geography and economy including:
●
of Edessa, Tripoli, Antioch and the primacy of Jerusalem
●
the absence of natural boundaries to the east
●
the importance of the seaports for maintaining economic and
military links with Europe
●
trade between Muslim and Christian cities
●
patterns of settlement and migration from Europe.
Eg Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades
1095–1197 (Routledge, 2014).
Chapters 3–5 examine the crusader
state and the military orders that
protected it.
Defence including:
10
Theme 3
●
Baldwin I’s consolidation of territory 1100–18
●
adoption of local methods of fortification and the building of castles
●
the protection of the military orders of the Templars and the
Hospitallers, including their control of border castles
●
financial support for the states from Byzantium and Europe.
Government of the crusader states including:
11
Theme 3
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
●
the rule of Baldwin I and Baldwin II
●
Baldwin III and the conflict with Queen Melisende
●
the rule of the ‘leper king’ Baldwin IV
●
the importance of growing divisions within the ruling elite and the
succession crisis of 1185
●
the significance of Raymond of Tripoli’s truce with Saladin.
5
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Thematic approach
12
Theme 3
●
Richard I’s agreement with Saladin 1192.
Suggested activity: An examination of the weaknesses of the
government of Outremer 1100–92.
Theme 4: The
changing Muslim
response to the
crusades, 1095–
1192
13
Theme 4
Muslim political and religious divisions including:
●
the split between the Sunni Seljuk Turks and the Shi’ah Fatmids of
Egypt
●
the significance of Kilij Arslan’s defeats at Nicaea and Dorylaeum
1097
●
the defeat of Kerbogha’s forces at Antioch 1098
●
the fall of Jerusalem 1099.
Eg Amin Maalouf, The Crusades
through Arab Eyes (Saqi, 1984).
Provides an in-depth account of the
crusades from the Arab point of
view.
The growth of Muslim power, 1144–69 including:
14
Theme 4
●
Zingi and the seizure of Edessa 1144
●
Nur ad-Din’s consolidation of power, 1146–54
●
Nur’s growing rift with Saladin.
The power of Saladin, 1169–92, including:
15
Theme 4
●
consolidation of Saladin’s power in Egypt and Syria 1169–84
●
the attack on Tiberias, the battle of Hattin
●
fall of Jerusalem to Saladin 1187
●
the siege of Acre and the battle of Arsuf 1189–91
●
Saladin’s success in keeping Muslim control of Jerusalem in 1192.
Suggested activity: The significance of Saladin as a Muslim leader.
16
6
Historical
interpretations:
What explains
the failure of the
Fourth Crusade?
Innocent III’s plans for the crusade and the significance of their
failure.
The significance of the size and leadership of the crusading forces.
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley,
The Crusades (Hodder, 2013).
Chapter 8 provides an accessible
examination of the failure of the
Fourth Crusade and the
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Thematic approach
17
Historical
interpretations
The impact of the role of the Venice and of the priorities of the Doge
Enrico Dandolo.
Suggested activity: Interpretations exercise on the role of the Doge in
the failure of the Fourth Crusade.
18
Historical
interpretations
The significance of the failure of Prince Alexius and of the sack of
Constantinople.
19
[half]
Historical
interpretations
Historical interpretation summary: Explanations for the failure of the
Fourth Crusade.
responsibility for failure.
For other suitable books and
articles, see the list in the separate
Route A Topic booklet.
Suggested activity: Interpretations of the failure of the Fourth
Crusade.
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
7
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Chronological approach
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Chronological approach
In this scheme of work, the content has been arranged mainly in chronological order, with time left at the end to revisit each of the
themes. Numbers in brackets indicate which of the four themes the point relates to.
Theme 1: Reasons for the crusades, 1095–1192
Theme 2: Leadership of the crusades, 1095–1192
Theme 3: The crusader states of Outremer, 1100–92
Theme 4: The changing Muslim response to the crusades, 1095–1192
Week
1
Introductions
Content
Suggested resources
Introduction to the course.
Route overview and Paper 1 overview from
Route A topic booklet.
Introduction to Paper 1 and Paper 2: reason for studying
those two topics.
Background/context to thematic link and background to
Paper 1 topic.
2
3
The First
Crusade, 1095–
99
●
Pope Urban II’s speech at Clermont 1095 (1)
●
the nature and purpose of the First Crusade (1)
●
the motives of the papacy and the crusaders (1).
●
the eight princes and their changing priorities (2)
●
Baldwin’s conquest of Edessa 1097 (2)
●
Bohemund’s seizure of Antioch 1098 (2)
●
Emergence of Geoffrey of Bouillon as leader and the
capture of Jerusalem 1099 (2)
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley, The Crusades
(Hodder, 2013). Chapter 1 provides a brief
overview of the period.
Eg Toby Purser, The Crusades and the Crusader
States 1073–1192 (Heinemann, 2010). Chapters
2 and 3 cover the reasons for the First Crusade
and the motivations of the crusaders.
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley, The Crusades
(Hodder, 2013). Chapter 3 provides an
accessible account of the key events and the
individuals involved.
Suggested activity: An assessment of the significance of
the role of Urban II in the First Crusade.
8
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Chronological approach
4
5
The
establishment
and defence of
Outremer,
1100–44
6
●
Edessa, Tripoli, Antioch and Jerusalem (3)
●
the absence of natural boundaries to the east (3)
●
Baldwin I’s consolidation of territory, 1100–18
●
the government of Outremer (3)
●
the rule of Baldwin I and Baldwin II (3)
●
the establishment and role of the military orders of the
Hospitallers and the Templars (3)
●
castle building (3).
Eg Toby Purser, The Crusades and the Crusader
States 1073–1192 (Heinemann, 2010). Chapters
5 and 6 cover the government of the crusader
kingdom and its development into a military
state.
Suggested activity: How secure was the crusader kingdom
in 1130?
7
The Second
Crusade, 1144–
48
8
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
●
Zingi and the seizure of Edessa 1144 (4)
●
the call for a Second Crusade: the role of Bernard of
Clairvaux (1)
●
the rivalry of Louis VII and Conrad III; their
relationship with Manuel I (2)
Eg www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/bernardapol.asp
●
the failure to consult the leaders of the crusader states
(2)
A copy of Bernard of Clairvaux’s Apologia for the
Second Crusade.
●
the defeats at Dorylaeum and Mount Cadmus (4)
●
failure at Damascus 1148 and the end of the crusade
(2)
●
the reasons for the failure of the Second Crusade (2)
http://economicphilosophistory.wordpress.com/2
013/01/20/how-important-was-leadership-inthe-failure-of-the-second-crusade-1145-1148/
●
conflict and division in the crusader states, including
the succession crisis 1185 (3)
A brief summary of the role of leadership in the
failure of the Second Crusade.
9
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Chronological approach
9
The Third
Crusade, 1187–
92
10
11
●
Raymond of Tripoli’s truce with Saladin (3)
●
the rise of Saladin, his victory at Hattin and capture of
Jerusalem (4)
●
the reasons for the Third Crusade (1, 3)
●
the impact of the crusading leaders: Frederick
Barbarossa, Richard I and Philip II (2)
●
the capture of Cyprus and Acre (2)
●
Philip’s departure from the crusade (2)
●
the battle of Arsuf (4)
●
Richard’s decision not to attack Jerusalem (2)
●
significance of the truce with Saladin (4).
Suggested activity: The extent to which the Third Crusade
could be considered a success.
Eg Amin Maalouf, The Crusades through Arab
Eyes (Saqi, 1984). Chapters 10 and 11 provide
an account of the Third Crusade and the rivalry
of Saladin and Richard from the Arab point of
view.
Eg BBC documentary, Richard the Lionheart and
Saladin – Holy Warriors.
There is a range of useful questions on the Third
Crusade in Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley, The
Crusades (Hodder, 2013), chapter 7.
12
Theme 1:
Reasons for the
crusades 1095–
1192
Draw out issues relating to the causes of the crusades with
an understanding of the different motivations of peasants,
knights, families, rulers and the papacy.
Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Oxford Illustrated
History of the Crusades, (Oxford University
Press, 2001). Chapter 2 provide an in-depth
examination of the motivations for the crusades.
13
Theme 2:
Leadership of
the crusades,
1095–1192
Draw out issues relating to the roles of the different
leaders of the crusades including the princes, the kings of
Jerusalem and the rivalries between Louis VIII and Conrad
III and Richard I and Philip II.
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley, The Crusades
(Hodder, 2013). Provides an accessible
examination of the roles of the different leaders
in the crusades.
14
Theme 3: The
crusader states
of Outremer,
1100–92
Draw out issues relating to the establishment and
consolidation of the four states that made up Outremer
and the emergence and roles of the military orders.
Eg Jonathan Phillips, The Crusades 1095–1197,
(Routledge, 2014). Chapters 3–5 examine the
crusader state and the military orders that
protected it.
15
Theme 4: The
changing Muslim
response to the
crusades 1095–
1192
Draw out issues relating to the growth of Muslim power,
rivalry between Muslim leaders and the role and
importance of Saladin.
Eg Amin Maalouf, The Crusades through Arab
Eyes (Saqi, 1984). Provides an in-depth account
of the crusades from the Arab point of view.
10
Suggested activity: The significance of Saladin as a Muslim
leader.
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 1: The crusades, c1095–1204: Chronological approach
16
17
Historical
interpretations:
What explains
the failure of the
Fourth Crusade?
Innocent’s plans for the crusade and the significance of
their failure.
Historical
interpretations
The impact of the role of the Venice and of the priorities of
the Doge Enrico Dandolo.
The significance of the size and leadership of the crusading
forces.
Eg Jamie Byrom and Michael Riley, The Crusades
(Hodder, 2013). Chapter 8 provides an
accessible examination of the failure of the
Fourth Crusade and the responsibility for failure.
For other suitable books and articles, see the list
in the separate Route A Topic booklet.
Suggested activity: Interpretations analysis on the role of
the Doge in the failure of the Fourth Crusade.
18
Historical
interpretations
The significance of the failure of Prince Alexius and of the
sack of Constantinople 1204.
19
Historical
interpretations
Historical interpretations summary: Explanations of the
failure of the Fourth Crusade.
Suggested activity: Interpretations of the failure of the
Fourth Crusade.
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
11
Paper 2: 2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, c1053–1106
Paper 2: 2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom,
c1053–1106
In this scheme of work, the content has been arranged mainly in chronological order and follows the topic order outlined in the
specification.
Week
Topic
Content
Suggested resources
20
Introduction
Introduction to topic and background context:
Route A topic booklet.
21
Topic 1: Late
Anglo-Saxon
England,
c1053–66
●
the establishment and nature of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom
●
Viking challenges and the impact on the Anglo-Saxon kingdom.
Monarchy and government:
●
the power of the English monarchy
●
the earldoms and shires
●
local government
●
the legal system.
Eg Channel 4, Monarchy, Series 1.
Episodes 1 and 2 have an overview
of England in the Anglo-Saxon era.
Eg Toby Purser, Medieval England
1042–1228 (Heinemann, 2004).
Provides an accessible introduction
to the nature of the Anglo-Saxon
kingdom.
The economy:
22
Topic 1
●
the system of taxation
●
royal mints and the silver penny
●
coastal towns and overseas trade
●
urbanisation and the growth of trading centres.
The house of Godwin
●
Harold Godwinson’s succession as Earl of Wessex
●
the power of the Godwin siblings
●
the campaign against the Welsh
●
Harold Godwinson’s embassy to Normandy
Eg Marc Morris, The Normans
(Windmill Books, 2013). Provides
an excellent assessment of the role
of Harold Godwinson as Edward the
Confessor’s leading earl.
Suggested activity: Source exercise comparing Norman and AngloSaxon accounts of Harold’s trip to Normandy.
12
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 2: 2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, c1053–1106
23
Topic 1
●
the rising against Tostig’s and his exile.
Early threats to Harold’s throne:
●
Edward’s death and the claimants to the throne
●
the witan and the coronation
●
Harold Hardrada’s invasion
●
reasons for, and significance of, the outcome of the battles of Gate
Fulford and Stamford Bridge 1066.
Eg Channel 4, 1066. Episode 1
provides a memorable visual
account of the battle of Stamford
Bridge.
Suggested activity: An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses
of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom and kingship.
24
Topic 2: The
Norman
conquest of
England and
extension of
control in Wales
and Scotland,
1066–93
Reasons for William of Normandy’s decision to invade England in 1066
(from Topic 4):

claim to the throne (Topic 4)

military experience and power of Normandy (Topics 2 and 4)

papal support for William’s claim (Topic 4).
Eg Matthew Bennett, Campaigns of
the Norman Conquest (Osprey
Press, 2001). Has clear diagrams of
the battlefield at Hastings and the
movement of the troops.
William of Normandy’s invasion (Topic 2):

reasons for the Norman victory at Hastings, including the
leadership skills of Harold and William, Norman and English
troops and tactics.
Suggested activity: Examination of the reasons for Harold’s defeat at
Hastings.
25
Topic 2
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
Dealing with opposition to the Normans:

submission of the earls in 1066

rebellions in the south 1067–69

the Harrying of the North

foreign intervention and the East Anglian Rebellion

revolt of the Norman earls 1075
Eg Frank Barlow, The Feudal
Kingdom of England 1042–1216
(Routledge, 1999). Provides an
accessible account of the rebellions
in chapter 3.
13
Paper 2: 2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, c1053–1106
26
Topic 2
Wales and Scotland:

Eadric the Wild’s rising 1067–69

imposition of Norman control over Wales 1067–93

the Normans and Scotland: Malcolm III and the Northern
Rebellion

William II and Scotland 1091–93.
Eg A L Poole, From Domesday Book
to Magna Carta, 1087–1216
(Oxford University Press, 1993).
Chapter 9 provides a useful
account of William II’s relations
with Scotland.
The founding of a military state:

the operation of the feudal system, tenants-in-chief and
knights

the nature of land tenure

the building of castles and their impact on Norman control and
royal power.
Suggested activity: An examination of the extent of Norman control
over England and the Celtic fringe (change and continuity).
27
Topic 3: State,
church and
society, 1066–
1106
Central and local government:

the king’s household and role of the chancery

the geld and silver penny

the office of sheriff

codes of law and the local courts.
Eg Toby Purser, Medieval England
1042–1228 (Heinemann, 2004).
Provides an accessible introduction
to the development of the
government in the Anglo-Norman
kingdom.
The end of the English aristocracy:

14
changes in land tenure and the creation of new earldoms
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 2: 2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, c1053–1106
28
Topic 3

Norman aristocracy: military and political service

the Domesday Survey 1086 and the extent of Norman
influence.
Changes in towns and villages:
Eg Marc Morris, Normans and
Slavery: Breaking the Bonds,
History Today, Volume: 63, Issue:
3, 2013.
 towns and trading patterns
 village life, royal forests and the forest laws
 gradual disappearance of slavery.
Suggested activity: An examination of the extent to which AngloSaxon England was transformed into a Norman state.
29
Topic 3
The English church:

the deposition of Stigand in 1070

Lanfranc’s reforms

Anselm’s conflict with William II

Henry I, Anselm and the investiture controversy 1100–1106

the Norman kings and the papacy.
Eg Frank Barlow, The Feudal
Kingdom of England 1042–1216
(Routledge, 1999). Provides a good
summary of the developments
within the church in chapters 4 and
5.
Suggested activity: Source activity exploring Anselm’s conflict with
William Rufus.
30
Topic 4:
Normandy
1066–1106
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
Reasons for William of Normandy’s decision to invade England in
1066: brief recap from earlier study.
Problems in Normandy 1066–87:

conflict in Maine 1069–73

William’s defeat at the siege of Dol in 1076

Resisting the demands of Robert Curthose 1078–83

the division of the Anglo-Norman territories after William’s
death.
Eg A L Poole, From Domesday Book
to Magna Carta, 1087–1216
(Oxford University Press, 1993).
Chapter 4 provides a useful
account of William Rufus’ and
Henry I’s conflict with Robert
Curthose and the restoration of the
Anglo-Norman kingdom.
15
Paper 2: 2A.1: Anglo-Saxon England and the Anglo-Norman Kingdom, c1053–1106
31
32
Topic 4
Topic 4
William Rufus and Robert Curthose:

the position of the Anglo-Norman nobles

the rebellion of the barons against William Rufus in 1088

William Rufus’ invasion of Normandy in 1091

significance of Robert Curthose’s decision to go on crusade
1095–96
Henry I and the restoration of the Anglo-Norman kingdom 1100–
1106:

the defeat of Robert of Bellême

misrule in Normandy

Henry’s campaign in Normandy

victory at Tinchebrai in 1106

the significance of the restoration of the Anglo-Norman
kingdom.
Suggested activity: Evaluation of the significance of Henry I’s victory
at Tinchebrai.
16
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014
Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89
Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II,
1154–89
In this scheme of work, the content has been arranged mainly in chronological order and follows the topic order outlined in the
specification.
Week
Topic
Content
Suggested resources
20
Introduction
Introduction to topic and background context.
Route A topic booklet.
Channel 4, Monarchy, Series 1. Episode 3
has summary of events in England during
the anarchy and the accession of Henry II.
21
Topic 1: The
restoration and
extension of
royal authority,
1154–72
Henry and the Angevin Empire in 1154:

the weakness of the position of the king including the
increase in baronial power during the anarchy and
declining royal revenues

the extent of Angevin lands overseas

the significance of Henry’s marriage to Eleanor of
Aquitaine and her authority in Aquitaine.
Henry II and the nobility:

the destruction of illegal castles

the weakening of baronial power.
Eg John Gillingham, The Angevin Empire
(Bloomsbury Academic, 2000). Chapter 2
explores the background to the
establishment of the Angevin Empire.
Helen Castor, She Wolves: The Women
who ruled England Before Elizabeth (Faber
& Faber, 2010). Has an excellent account
of Henry’s marriage to Eleanor and its
significance.
Suggested activity: Source activity exploring the problems
facing Henry II in 1154.
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
17
Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89
22
Topic 1

the Cartae Baronum 1166: financial and military
significance

the Inquest of Sheriffs 1170: financial and judicial
importance.
Wales, Scotland and Ireland:

making peace in Wales

the submission of Malcolm IV in 1157

the submission of the Irish kings and bishops in 1172.
Eg A L Poole, From Domesday Book to
Magna Carta, 1087–1216 (Oxford
University Press, 1993). Chapter 9
provides an overview of Henry’s extension
of his control into Wales, Scotland and
Ireland.
Suggested activity: The extent to which Henry II had overcome
the problems created by the anarchy by 1170.
23
18
Topic 1
The Angevin lands in France:

Henry’s restoration of control in Normandy

acquisition and control of Brittany

relations and conflict with Louis VII of France

the significance of the peace of Montmirail 1169.
Eg A L Poole, From Domesday Book to
Magna Carta, 1087–1216 (Oxford
University Press, 1993). Chapter 10
provides an overview of Henry’s extension
of his continental lands.
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Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89
24
Topic 2:
Reforms in
England, 1154–
89
Central institutions:

the Curia Regis

the justiciars and the Chancellor

the roles of significant individuals, including Richard of
Lucy (chief justiciar), Bishop Nigel (Exchequer) and
Thomas Becket (Chancellor).
Eg Toby Purser, Medieval England 1042–
1228 (Heinemann, 2004). Provides a
concise account of the key reforms and
their purpose.
Financial reforms:

the revival of the Danegeld

restoration of royal lands

reform of the coinage in 1158 and 1180

the importance of Richard fitzNigel

the impact of financial reforms on increasing royal
income.
Suggested activity: Source activity using primary records from
the Exchequer.
25
Topic 2
Legal reforms:

the Assizes of Clarendon 1166 and Northampton 1176

the itinerant justices and the general eyre

the Court of King’s Bench

novel disseisin and mort d’ancestor

the extent of changes to the system of royal justice
under Henry II and their implications for the power of the
monarchy.
The changing nature of kingship:

© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
growing political and economic power of the king
Eg Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Angevin
England has a copy of the Assizes of
Clarendon:
www.fordham.edu/Halsall/sbook.asp
Eg John Gillingham, The Angevin Empire
(Bloomsbury Academic, 2000). Chapter 6
explores the importance of itinerant
kingship.
19
Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89
26
Topic 2

relations with leading barons

the importance of the itinerant kingship on maintaining
royal power in England and the Angevin Empire.
Suggested activity: The extent to which royal authority was
strengthened in the years 1154–80.
27
Topic 3: Henry
and the English
church, 1154–
74
Henry’s problems with the church:

papal influence

church courts

the church’s attitude towards moral offences

clerical interference in secular affairs

Henry’s aims for the church and the implications for his
relationship with the church.
Eg John Guy, Thomas Becket: Warrior,
Priest, Rebel, Victim: A 900-Year-Old Story
Retold (Penguin 2013). Provides an
excellent analysis of the conflict and the
role of the two main protagonists.
Becket and the king, 1162–64:

reasons for Becket’s election as Archbishop of Canterbury
1162

Henry’s demands for reform: the Constitutions of
Clarendon 1164.
Suggested activity: Source exercise on the demands in the
Constitutions of Clarendon.
28
Topic 3

Becket’s attitude towards reform and the implications for
his relationship with Henry and the bishops

conflict between king and archbishop

Becket’s flight into exile 1164.
The failure to compromise, 1169–70:
20

the failure to reach a settlement

the diplomacy of Pope Alexander III

the coronation of the Young King, June 1170

Becket’s return to England, his death and its significance,
including its impact on the position of Henry II.
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Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89
29
Topic 3
The settlements between king and church, 1172–76:

the agreement at Avranches 1172

relations between Henry and the pope

Henry’s penance at Canterbury in 1174

the extent of Henry’s success.
Eg A L Poole, From Domesday Book to
Magna Carta, 1087–1216 (Oxford
University Press, 1993). Chapter 7
provides an examination of the impact of
Becket’s murder on Henry’s relationship
with the church.
Suggested activity: The impact of Becket’s murder on Henry’s
relationship with the church.
30
Topic 4: Crises
of the Angevin
Empire, 1170–
89
Power and family rivalries:

Henry’s plans for his sons’ inheritance

the division of Angevin lands between Henry’s sons
(recap on the agreement at Montmirail from Topic 1)

the position of Eleanor of Aquitaine and its significance in
Henry’s control of the empire.
Eg John Gillingham, The Angevin Empire,
(Bloomsbury Academic, 2000). Chapter 4
provides an accessible account of the
challenge to Henry by his sons and the
outcome by 1189.
Causes of the Great Rebellion of 1173–74:
31
Topic 4

the opposition of the English barons to Henry’s reforms

Henry’s failure to grant his sons a role in government
and their flight to Paris

Eleanor’s opposition to the king: political and personal
reasons.
The defeat of the Great Rebellion:

Henry’s victories in England and the Angevin lands

the expulsion of invaders from Normandy

the capture of William the Lion at Alnwick 1174

the short-term impact of Henry’s victories on royal
power, 1174–80.
Suggested activity: An examination of the reasons for Henry’s
success in crushing the Great Rebellion 1173–74.
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014.
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Paper 2: 2A.2: England and the Angevin Empire in the reign of Henry II, 1154–89
32
Topic 4
Philip Augustus and the collapse of Henry’s power, 1180–89:

the deaths of the Young King and Geoffrey

Richard and John’s ambitions and treachery

the alliance of Philip and Richard against Henry

Henry’s defeat in 1189.
Eg Internet Medieval Sourcebook. Angevin
England contains an account of Henry II’s
death by Benedict of Peterborough:
www.fordham.edu/Halsall/sbook.asp
Suggested activity: An examination of the changing authority of
the king over the Angevin Empire.
22
© Pearson Education Ltd 2014