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The Crusades The Crusades • European Christians attempt to recapture Jerusalem from the Muslims. • There were eight Crusades in total that lasted over a 200 year period. The First Crusade (1096) • Led by Godfrey of Bouillon. • Drove Muslims from part of Palestine. • Established a Christian kingdom in the Holy Land. • Gained control of Jerusalem. The Third Crusade (1189) • Leaders: – Frederick Barbarossa of Germany – Philip Augustus of France – Richard the Lionhearted of England. • Failed to recapture the Holy Land. • Muslim leader, Saladin, allowed safe passage for Christians. The Effects of the Crusades • Broadened the outlook of Europeans. • Stimulated Trade and Towns. • Strengthened Kings or Central Governments. • Weakened Serfdom. • Encouraged Learning.