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Middle Ages
• Seljuq Turks gained control of Palestine, a
Christian “holy land”
– Turks attacked Byzantine Empire
– Byzantine leader called on Pope Urban II for help
– called on lords to stop fighting themselves and
join a great war to win back the “holy land”
– 10,000 Europeans called crusaders
1st Crusade 1096-1099
• Marched down Palestinian coast to Jerusalem
• Turks fighting amongst themselves couldn’t
hold off Crusaders
• Massacred both Muslims and Jewish people
• Captured Jerusalem, controlled holy land
• Impose European customs, trade, feudalism
• Christians and Muslims begin to respect each
Other Crusades
• 2nd Crusade 1147-49
– Turks reunited begin to take land back
– Louis VII (France), Conrad III (Germany) join forces
– Failed to recapture Damascus, return in shame
• 3rd Crusade 1189-92
– Muslim leader Saladin gains control of Jerusalem
– Barbarbossa (HRE), Philip II (Fra), Richard I (Eng)
– Barbarbossa drowned on the way, his army turned
– Philip and Richard argued, Philip’s army left
– Richard battles to truce with Saladin, allowing
access to Jerusalem
Other Crusades cont….
• 4th Crusade 1202-1204
– Innocent III gathered French knights
– Knights attack Zadar and Constantinople both
Christian cities, end up being excommunicated
• Children’s Crusade 1212
– Young people march to holy land
– Untrained, lacking supplies they were sent home
– Several thousand end up being tricked into slavery
• Crusades continue until 1291 when Muslims
capture Acre
Results of Crusades
• All crusades except the first failed
• Weapons
– Crossbow, penetrated chain mail, plate armor
– New ways to wage war and gunpowder
• Political
– To raise money lords sold land, no land= no power
– Kings grow stronger, new taxes, ends feudalism
– Christian church more powerful