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Transcript
World History
Chapter 14A
Church Reform and the Crusades
Age of Faith
• The Church revival of this period began the
“Age of Faith” (about 1000A.D.)
• Three problems of the Church:
1. Priests were marrying
2. Simony-selling Church positions
3. Lay Investiture
Early Church Reforms
• Church reform begins at Cluny (910)
• The Pope, is advised in this reform by the Curia
(Counsel)
• The Curia are advisors and acted as a court
• The Pope extends his power throughout Europe
by sending out diplomats
• The Church provides social services such as
caring for the poor and sick
• The Church operated hospitals. This activity
gains the trust and loyalty of the masses
Cluny
Friars
• Dominicans-Founded by Dominic (Spanish
priest), they emphasize the importance of
study
• Franciscans-Founded by St. Francis of
Assisi (Italian). He treated all creatures as if
they were his spiritual brothers and sisters
Friars
Religious Orders for Women
Women joined the Dominicans and Poor
Clare's (Franciscan order for women)
Women are not allowed to travel from place to
place preaching
Cathedrals
• Romanesque Style-Round arches and a heavy
roof held up thick walls and pillars. They had
tiny windows that let in little light
• Gothic Style-Named after a Germanic tribe.
Gothic cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching
toward heaven. Light streamed in through
huge stained-glass windows
Romanesque Style
Gothic Style
The Crusades
• Pope Urban II called for a crusade or “Holy
War”
• Their goal was to recover Jerusalem and the
Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
Pope Urban II
Causes
• Opportunity to get rid of quarrel-some knights
who fought each other
• Merchants profited by making cash loans to
finance the Crusades
• Merchants hoped to win control of key trade
routes
• Those who died were granted forgiveness of
their sins and assured a place in heaven
The Four Crusades
1. First Crusade-Jerusalem is captured
2. Second Crusade-Jerusalem is lost
3. Third Crusades-Jerusalem stays in Muslim
control but Pilgrims are allowed to freely visit
the city’s Holy Places
4. Fourth Crusade-Jerusalem stays in Muslim
hands and Christians loot Constantinople
Men to Know
• Louis IX-King of France that will lead the first
crusade. He will be made a saint after his death
by the Catholic Church
• Frederick I (Barbarossa)-German King that will
drown on the way to the Crusades
• Richard the Lion-Hearted-English King that
will fight the Muslim leader Saladin to a standstill
and make a treaty to open Jerusalem to pilgrims
(Third Crusade)
• Saladin-Muslim leader of the 1100s
Louis IX
Frederick I (Barbarossa)
Richard the Lion-Hearted
Saladin
Continued
• Later Crusades will be fought in North Africa
and Spain
• Reconquista-Granada is taken in 1492 and the
Inquisition begins. Jews and Muslims are
driven out of Spain
Effects of the Crusades
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Byzantine Empire is weakened
Pope’s power declines
Power of feudal nobles weakens
Kings become stronger
Religious intolerance grows
Italian cities expand trade and grow rich
Muslims increasingly distrust Christians
Trade grows between Europe and the Middle East
European technology improves as Crusaders learn
from Muslims
TA14B
Read Pages 387-392
Copy & Define Terms on Page 392
Copy & Answer Questions 11, 12, & 13 on Page
404