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Transcript
Chapter 14
The formation of Western Europe
800 - 1500
A
Mr. Alley & Mr. Kirschner
Production
Church Reform and the Crusades
• The Pope inspired by the many monasteries that
showed reverence toward God began to reform
the Church (The Age of Faith).
• Pope Leo IX ended simony (selling of positions
in the Church) and the marriage of priests.
• 1100-1200 the Church was restructured to
resemble a kingdom with the Pope as its head.
• Enforce Cannon Law through the Curia (Pope’s
Court).
• Collected taxes in the form of tithes.
Cathedrals-Cities of God
• In the 1100’s Gothic Architecture replaced
Romanesque
• Gothic cathedrals raised up to the skies
with huge stained glass windows shedding
light on within.
Romanesque Aspects
Aspects of Gothic Architecture
Stain glass Windows
Romanesque & Gothic
The Crusades
• In 1093 the Byzantine Emperor Alexius
Comnenus asked the Pope Urban II to
help to stop the Muslims from conquering
the city of Constantinople. The Pope
called for a Crusade (Holy War) to gain
control of the Holy Land in the Middle
East.
The Crusades 1096 - 1204
The
Crusaders
Came from
All over
Europe.
First
Crusade
Was most
successful.
Third Crusade
• In 1187 a Kurdish warrior and Muslim
leader, Saladin recaptured Jerusalem. The
Third Crusade (1189-1192) was lead by
Richard the Lion-Hearted. He and Saladin
fought for years with no victory. A truce in
1192 allowed Jerusalem to remain under
Muslim control and Christian Pilgrims
could visit the Holy places.
Children’s Crusade
• In1212 30,000 French children march to
the Mediterranean Sea to take back
Jerusalem. Those that did not die were
sold into slavery when they arrived at the
sea.
Spanish Crusade
• The Reconquista was the long battle the
Spanish fought to rid Spain of its Muslim
rulers. In 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen
Isabella were able to defeat the Muslims at
the battle of Granada. The King and
Queen used the Inquisition (Church’s court
that tried people if their beliefs were
different from the Church). All Muslims and
Jews had to leave Spain in 1492.
The Effects of the Crusades
• Women were able to manage estates and
operate shops or inns.
• Pope and Church grew weaker.
• Monarchs grew stronger.
• The Crusades left bitterness and hatred
between Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
• Trade with Europe and Asia was reestablished.