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Chapter 14 The formation of Western Europe 800 - 1500 A Mr. Alley & Mr. Kirschner Production Church Reform and the Crusades • The Pope inspired by the many monasteries that showed reverence toward God began to reform the Church (The Age of Faith). • Pope Leo IX ended simony (selling of positions in the Church) and the marriage of priests. • 1100-1200 the Church was restructured to resemble a kingdom with the Pope as its head. • Enforce Cannon Law through the Curia (Pope’s Court). • Collected taxes in the form of tithes. Cathedrals-Cities of God • In the 1100’s Gothic Architecture replaced Romanesque • Gothic cathedrals raised up to the skies with huge stained glass windows shedding light on within. Romanesque Aspects Aspects of Gothic Architecture Stain glass Windows Romanesque & Gothic The Crusades • In 1093 the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus asked the Pope Urban II to help to stop the Muslims from conquering the city of Constantinople. The Pope called for a Crusade (Holy War) to gain control of the Holy Land in the Middle East. The Crusades 1096 - 1204 The Crusaders Came from All over Europe. First Crusade Was most successful. Third Crusade • In 1187 a Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader, Saladin recaptured Jerusalem. The Third Crusade (1189-1192) was lead by Richard the Lion-Hearted. He and Saladin fought for years with no victory. A truce in 1192 allowed Jerusalem to remain under Muslim control and Christian Pilgrims could visit the Holy places. Children’s Crusade • In1212 30,000 French children march to the Mediterranean Sea to take back Jerusalem. Those that did not die were sold into slavery when they arrived at the sea. Spanish Crusade • The Reconquista was the long battle the Spanish fought to rid Spain of its Muslim rulers. In 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella were able to defeat the Muslims at the battle of Granada. The King and Queen used the Inquisition (Church’s court that tried people if their beliefs were different from the Church). All Muslims and Jews had to leave Spain in 1492. The Effects of the Crusades • Women were able to manage estates and operate shops or inns. • Pope and Church grew weaker. • Monarchs grew stronger. • The Crusades left bitterness and hatred between Christians, Muslims, and Jews. • Trade with Europe and Asia was reestablished.