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Transcript
Name______________________________
Per_______
Date ______________
Activity 54: Investigating Human Traits
Target
You will be able to demonstrate understanding of characteristics and traits.
Standard
6-8 LS3B- Every organism contains a set of genetic information (instructions) to specify its
traits. This information is contained within genes in the chromosomes in the
nucleus of each cell.
Vocabulary:
Heredity
Characteristics
Inherited
Gene
Phenotype
Genetics
Trait
Genotype
Questions:
1.
What is the difference between a trait and a characteristic? A characteristic is a feature (like eye color) and a trait is a version
(blue eyes) of that characteristic.
2.
Do you think that all the traits were inherited? If so - explain why. If not – indicate which one(s) were not and explain why
you don’t think they were inherited. In 54, we were just exploring this idea. We thought that some characteristics were likely
the result of more than being inherited . For example, height might be influenced by diet, tongue rolling by practicing. On
the other hand, some characteristics like widow’s peak and eye color, might be inherited.
3.
If you studied more people in your area, do you think you would find more traits for each characteristic? Explain.
Depends, you might find more traits for height or a few more for eye color (? Violet). But you either can or cannot role your
tongue and so there are only 2 traits (versions).
4.
Be able to interpret and/or graph a list of traits.
Activity 55/62: Plants Have Genes, Too!
Target
You will be able to predict the offspring of two parent plants given the
parent’s genetic make-up.
Standard
6-8 LS3B- Every organism contains a set of genetic information (instructions) to specify its
traits. This information is contained within genes in the chromosomes in the
nucleus of each cell.
Vocabulary:
Gene
Offspring
Genetics
Trait
Inherited
Questions:
Refer to your class’s data to describe the ratio between the colors of the offspring’s stems and leaves. How does this match
Mendel’s observation? Our class data varied – but when my 3 classes were combined, we saw a ratio of 3:1 which is what
Mendel saw as well in the dominant :recessive inheritance pattern.
Activity 56: Joe’s Dilemma
1.
Name______________________________
Per_______
Target
You will be able to identify advantages and disadvantages to genetic testing.
Date ______________
Standard
6-8 LS3B- Every organism contains a set of genetic information (instructions) to specify its
traits. This information is contained within genes in the chromosomes in the
nucleus of each cell.
Questions:
1.
What is a syndrome? A syndrome is a condition that causes a pattern of physical changes. It can be similar to a disease, but
the severity/impact on individuals vary. Marfan’s Syndrome varies in each person as to the symptoms and severity and how
it impacts their daily life.
2.
Can you “catch” an inherited disease from another person, the way you can catch the flu? Explain.
No, an inherited disease is passed down in genes from parent to offspring.
Activity 57: Copycat
Target
You will be able to compare asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of
parents and traits.
Standard
6-8 LS3C- Reproduction is essential for every species to continue to exist. Some plants and
animals reproduce sexually while others reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction leads to
greater diversity of characteristics because children inherit genes from both parents.
6-8 LS3D- In sexual reproduction, the new organism receives half of its genetic information
from each parent, resulting in offspring that
are similar but not identical to either parent. In asexual reproduction, just one parent is
involved, and genetic information.
6-8 LS3E-Adaptations are physical or behavioral changes that are
inherited and enhance the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular
environment.
Vocabulary:
asexual reproduction
mutation
clone
sexual reproduction
cloning
Questions:
1.
2.
3.
In asexual reproduction of a bacteria cell, is it clear which cell is the parent and which cell is the offspring? Explain. You
cannot tell because it is an exact copy or clone.
Your friend tells you, “Only single celled organisms reproduce asexually. After all, how could a multi-cellular organism do
that?” How do you respond to your friend? That is not true. We have studied multicellular organisms (animals and plants)
that reproduce asexually like worms and strawberry plants.
Describe asexual reproduction in your own words in terms of parents and traits
…sexual reproduction produces a ________ cell that develops into an _____________ with traits from ___________
_______________. ….because no two _________ cells or ________ cells contain exactly the same _______________, no
two __________________ produced by the same ________________ are ______________________.
4.
5.
6.
Fraternal twins result when two eggs are both fertilized by sperm cells and both develop into offspring. (Very common in
dogs and cats) Why are identical twins much more similar then fraternal twins? Identical twins result from a splitting of a
fertilized egg and so the genetic material is the same.
Explain how they clone an animal. Take a body cell from an animal like a sheep and replace the nucleus (with the genetic
material) from another sheep.
How is a clone different than an identical twin? Clone is asexual reproduction and twin is sexual.
Name______________________________
Per_______
Date ______________
Activity 58: Creature Features
Target
You will be able to use a model to determine how traits are inherited.
Standard
6-8 LS3B- Every organism contains a set of genetic information (instructions) to specify its
traits. This information is contained within genes in the chromosomes in the
nucleus of each cell.
Activity 59: Gene Combo
Target
You will be able to use a model to explain how inherited genes are either
dominant or recessive.
Standard
6-8 LS3C- Reproduction is essential for every species to continue to exist. Some
plants and animals reproduce sexually while others reproduce asexually. Sexual reproduction
leads to greater diversity of characteristics because children inherit genes from both parents.
6-8 LS3D- In sexual reproduction, the new
organism receives half of its genetic information from each parent, resulting in offspring that
are similar but not identical to either parent. In asexual reproduction, just one parent is
involved, and genetic information.
Vocabulary:
Allele
Heterozygous
Dominant
Phenotype
Genotype
Recessive
Homozygous
Activity 60: Reading Mendel
Target
You will read about Gregor Mendel’s contribution to the genetic
community.
Standard
6-8 LS3D- In sexual reproduction, the new organism receives half of its genetic information
from each parent, resulting in offspring that are similar but not identical to either parent. In
asexual reproduction, just one parent is involved, and genetic information.
Questions:
1.
2.
List the advantages for Mendel using pea plants for his breeding investigation. Easy to breed, fast, lots of seeds repeatable,
measureable.
Why did Mendel do so many crosses for the same characteristic? The more trials, the more accurate the results
Activity 61: Gene Squares
Target
You will be able to apply a Punnett square to determine the offspring two
parents.
Standard
6-8 LS3D- In sexual reproduction, the new organism receives half of its genetic information
from each parent, resulting in offspring that
are similar but not identical to either parent. In asexual eproduction, just one parent is
involved, and genetic information.
Vocabulary:
Carrier
homozygous
Punnett square
heterozygous
Questions:
1.
Flower color Purple is dominant (P), b. White is recessive (p)
Name______________________________
Per_______
Date ______________
Cross a homozygous dominant father and a homozygous dominant mother
What color(s) are the parents? Both purple
What color(s) are the children? All purple
2.
3.
Pod shape Smooth is dominant (S), b. Bumpy is recessive (s)
Cross a heterozygous father and a homozygous recessive mother.
What shape(s) are the parents? Father smooth and mother bumpy
What shape(s) are the children? ½ smooth and ½ bumpy
Chin cleft is dominant (C)
No chin cleft is recessive (c)
What is the genotype of the missing parent? Cc
What are the phenotypes of the parents? 1 with cleft and 1 with no cleft
What are the phenotypes of the children? ½ cleft and ½ no cleft
Activity 63: Show Me the Genes
Target
You will do a reading to determine the role chromosomes play in the
inheritance of genes.
Standard
6-8 LS3B- Every organism contains a set of genetic information (instructions) to specify its
traits. This information is contained within genes in the chromosomes in the
nucleus of each cell.
Question:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Where is genetic information located in your cells? On the chromosomes in the nucleus
How is the function of cell division in single-celled organisms different from cell division in multicellular organisms? Single
cell is for reproduction and multicelled is for growth and repair
What would happen to the number of chromosomes in each cell if copies of them were not made before cell division?
USE FIGURE 6 TO COMPLETE THIS DIAGRAM WITH THE AMOUNT OF CHROMOSOMES IN THE NUCLEII
46 in body cell
23 in egg and sperm
46 in fertilized egg cell
5.
Why must the number of chromosomes in the sperm and egg be half the number of chromosomes in the other cells of an
organism? The chromosomes of egg cell combine with chromosomes of sperm cell during fertilization to get the 46
chromosomes in fertilized egg.
Activity 64:
Target
You will investigate the difference between nature and nurture.
Vocabulary:
Nature vs. Nurture
Standard
6-8 LS3E-Adaptations are physical or behavioral changes that are
inherited and enhance the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular
environment.
Name______________________________
Per_______
Date ______________
Activity 65: Nature vs. Nurture
Target
You will investigate more factors in inheritance.
Standard
6-8 LS3E-Adaptations are physical or behavioral changes that are
inherited and enhance the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular
environment.
Vocabulary:
Co-dominance
Incomplete dominance
Activity 66: Patterns in Pedigrees
Target
You will be able to analyze pedigrees.
1.
2.
Standard
6-8 LS3E-Adaptations are physical or behavioral changes that are
inherited and enhance the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular
environment.
Choose dominant or recessive for these traits and explain why.
List the probable genotype for each person.
Probably dominant – in 1st and 2nd gen
Probably recessive – skips generations
Assume genotypes and see what happens
Assume genotypes and see what happens