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Two types of ion channels regulated by receptors and drugs. A. Diagram of a voltage-activated Na+ channel with the pore in the open and closed state.
The pore-forming P loops are shown in blue, angled into the pore to form the selectivity filter. The S4 helices forming the voltage sensor are shown in
orange, with the positively charged amino acids displayed as red dots. B. Ligand-gated nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in the skeletal muscle
neuromuscular junction. The pore is made up of 5 subunits, each with a large extracellular domain and 4 transmembrane helices (1 of these subunits is
shown at the left of panel B). The helix that lines the pore is shown in blue. The receptor is composed of 2 α subunits, and β, γ, and δ subunits. See text for
discussion of other ligand-gated ion channels. Detailed descriptions of specific channels are given throughout the text in relation to the therapeutic actions
Source: Pharmacodynamics: Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Action, Goodman and Gilman's Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2e
of drugs affecting these channels (see especially Chapters 11, 14, and 20). (Adapted with permission from Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall
R, Brunton
and Gilman's
of Pharmacology
2016 Available at:
WC, LaMantia
AS, McNamara
JO, and
White LE,
4th ed.
MA: Sinauer
2008.) Accessed: April 29, 2017
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