Download Ch 1 What is Psychology PPT slides

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Gestalt psychology wikipedia , lookup

Theory of reasoned action wikipedia , lookup

Personality psychology wikipedia , lookup

Insufficient justification wikipedia , lookup

Psychological evaluation wikipedia , lookup

Operant conditioning wikipedia , lookup

Cognitive science wikipedia , lookup

Dialogical self wikipedia , lookup

Attribution (psychology) wikipedia , lookup

Evolutionary psychology wikipedia , lookup

Cyberpsychology wikipedia , lookup

Health psychology wikipedia , lookup

Forensic psychology wikipedia , lookup

Occupational health psychology wikipedia , lookup

Psychological behaviorism wikipedia , lookup

Buddhism and psychology wikipedia , lookup

Developmental psychology wikipedia , lookup

Psychological injury wikipedia , lookup

Kenneth and Mamie Clark wikipedia , lookup

Descriptive psychology wikipedia , lookup

Behaviorism wikipedia , lookup

Index of psychology articles wikipedia , lookup

Process-oriented psychology wikipedia , lookup

Humanistic psychology wikipedia , lookup

Political psychology wikipedia , lookup

Social psychology wikipedia , lookup

Educational psychology wikipedia , lookup

Indigenous psychology wikipedia , lookup

Theoretical psychology wikipedia , lookup

Cultural psychology wikipedia , lookup

Music psychology wikipedia , lookup

Abnormal psychology wikipedia , lookup

Conservation psychology wikipedia , lookup

Experimental psychology wikipedia , lookup

International psychology wikipedia , lookup

Cross-cultural psychology wikipedia , lookup

Subfields of psychology wikipedia , lookup

History of psychology wikipedia , lookup

General Psychology
PSY 201
Instructor: Ms. T. Gumbs
PSY 201 Website & Course Textbook
My website:
◦ Blog:
◦ Email: [email protected]
Psychology: Concepts and Connections, 10th
by Spencer Rathus
Determinism v. Free Will
Do you believe in determinism, (i.e., your is life
determined by outside forces?)
Do you believe in free will?
What can science hope to reveal if the world
is not determined?
Pseudopsychologies are unreliable approaches that
do not use the scientific method
 Examples of pseudopsychologies include:
◦ Phrenology: attempt to assess personality by examining
one’s head
◦ Astrology: system that tries to relate personality to the
movement of the stars
◦ Palmistry: idea that reading a person’s character
from the lines on their palms
What Is Psychology?
The Study of Psychology
Psychology is the scientific study of
behavior and
mental processes
• Psychology employs scientific research
• Psychology values empirical evidence
• Psychology employs critical thinking
Where did Psychology Come From?
Ancient Greek philosophers
◦ Aristostle - wrote Peri Psyches
“About the Psyche”
 Human behavior subject to rules
& laws like nature
 Seed of consciousness in the heart not the head
◦ Democritus-suggested thinking of behavior in
terms of mind & body
◦ Socrates-advised to “Know thyself”
 Reliable self-knowledge not attained through the
senses but through introspection (i.e., careful
4 Goals of Psychology
1. Description identifies and classifies behaviors
and mental processes using careful
2. Explanation proposing reasons for behaviors
and mental processes
3. Prediction allows for specification of the
conditions under which a behavior will occur or
4. Control (Influence) uses the results of
research to solve practical problems
Historical Schools of Psychological
 Functionalist
 Psychodynamic
(a.k.a. Psychoanalytic)
 Humanist
Wilhelm Wundt (standing, with gray beard)
and colleagues 1880
(late 19th century)
 Wilhelm Wundt
“father of psychology”
◦ Disgusted w/phrenology
◦ set up 1st psychology lab to study consciousness in
Leipzig, Germany (1879)
◦ observed various stimuli, physical energies that evokes
a response people & animals (eg. lights & sound)
◦ used introspection, “looking inward” to
examine his reaction to stimuli
◦ called his approach experimental selfobservation, which combined trained
introspection with objective measurement
Structuralism (late 19th century)
Edward B. Titchener-carried Wundt’s ideas to
the US (1890s), where it was called…
 Structuralism-concerned with analyzing
sensations and personal experience into
basic elements
◦ Focus: studying the structure of the
◦ structuralists hardly agreed
◦ Cannot prove/disprove introspection
(early 20th century)
Functionalism-concerned with how humans and
animals use mental processes in adapting to
their environment
◦ Focus: the function of the mind
Charles Darwin-evolutionary theory
◦ Contributions:
 Increased animal use in psychological experiments
William James- “First True American Psychologist”
◦ theory: “stream of consciousness”
◦ Contributions:
 Study of children, animals, and mentally
 Study of educational practices, individual
practices and workplace adaptation
Early Pioneers of Psychology
Structuralists focused on sensations and
perceptual experiences
“structure of the mind”
Functionalists investigated functions of
mental processes in adapting to the
“function of the mind”
(most influential until
1960s & influential today)
challenged functionalism
 No need to study mental processes
 emphasized the study of overt behavior
 objective and measurable behaviors
◦ John B Watson-explained behavior as learned
reactions to certain stimuli as a result of conditioning
(discovered by Pavlov-1880s)
◦ B.F. Skinner-explained that behavior is shaped and
maintained by its consequences
◦ Helped separate psychology from philosophy
◦ Respected as a science
Sigmund Freud-Austrian doctor
◦ believed our behavior is influenced by
unconscious thoughts, impulses, and desires
(dark view of humans)
◦ Contribution:
 Psychoanalysis-a “talking therapy”
where the psychologist explores
the thoughts of patients
 Importance of childhood
(late 1930s &
influential today)
Humanism- a positive view of humans
◦ Stresses free will & inner-self (unlike behaviorism)
and private subjective experience
◦ Less concerned about the scientific aspect, more
concerned with human potential
◦ Psychological needs for love, belonging,
self-esteem, & spirituality
◦ Abraham Maslow developed the
concept of self-actualization, reaching
one’s full potential
Other Modern Perspectives
Cognitive psychology
focuses on mental
function and reasoning
• Gestalt psychology
emphasized perception; the
notion that the whole is
more than the sum of the
Biopsychology views
behavior as reflecting
brain processes
(1800s & major impact
Evolutionary psychology
asserts that certain
behavioral characteristics
are subject to natural
(late 1800s-today)
Sociocultural psychology
examines the influence of
culture and ethnic practice
on people’s behavior
(1930s-today; ethics crisis in
Psychological Perspectives I
Directions: Classify each of the following
explanations of depression as representative
of (a) behaviorism, (b) psychoanalysis, (c)
humanistic psychology, or (d) cognitive
psychology AND explain why you chose
your answer for that particular scenario
Depression is the result of faulty thinking.
People feel depressed because of the way
others respond to them when they
express sad feelings….
Depression comes from a lack of
confidence in one’s own inner self….
Depression grows out of emotions,
conflicts, and unpleasant experiences that
are buried in the unconscious mind….
Areas of Psychology
Clinical Psychologists
School Psychologists
Social psychologists
Health Psychologists
Forensic Psychologists
Sport Psychologists
Psychology Degrees By Area
“Psych humor”
“Psych humor”
“Psych humor”
Humanistic perspective
Who’s Who of Psychology
Late 19th century
Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) p. 10
◦ What is he known as?
◦ Which school of thought does he belong to?
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
◦ What theory is he known for?
◦ How does his theory relate to behavior?
◦ Which school of thought?
William James (1842-1910) p. 11
◦ Known as the “1st True American Psychologist”
◦ Author of first modern psychology textbook
Principles of Psychology
◦ Which school of thought?
Who’s Who of Psychology
Early 20th century
 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) p. 10
◦ Which school of thought does he belong to?
◦ What therapy technique is he known for?
Mary Calkins (1863-1930) p. 21
◦ Attended Harvard University as a “guest student”
◦ Completed all her requirements for Ph.D. at
Harvard University, but was denied her degree
◦ Pioneer in memory research
John B. Watson (1878-1958) p. 12
◦ Which school of thought?
◦ “Little Albert” experiment
◦ Theory: behavior is a set of learned reactions to
the environment (classical conditioning)
Who’s Who of Psychology
Early-Mid 20th century
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
◦ Which school of thought?
◦ Theory: behavior is shaped and maintained by
its consequences (operant conditioning)
Frances Cecil Sumner (1895-1954)
◦ Father of Black Psychology
◦ (1920) first African American to
receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology
Abraham Maslow (1908-1990)
◦ Which school of thought?
◦ Theory: self actualization
Black Psychology
Frances Cecil Sumner
◦ Father of Black Psychology
◦ 1920-first African American to
receive a Ph.D. degree in psychology
◦ Studied “race psychology” at Clarke University
◦ Chair of Psychology department at Howard
Dr. Kenneth Clark &
Mamie Clark p.22
◦ Doll Test
Cultural Differences in Psychology
Black Folks Don’t….Go to Therapy
Based on your own experiences or people
you know, do you agree that “black folks”
or other ethnic groups rarely seek therapy?
Why do you agree or disagree?
Introduction to Psychology Review
Psychology is defined
as the study of
The 4 goals of
psychology is to
describe, _____,
_____, & _____
What is the
difference between
behaviorism &
What is the
difference between
psychodynamic &
5. Name the following
individuals pictured & identify
the school of thought and major
Dr. Kenneth & Mamie Clark
Mary Calkins Wilson
Sigmund Freud
William James
Abraham Maslow
B.F. Skinner
Frances Cecil Sumner
John B. Watson
Wilhelm Wundt
Studying Psychology-SQ3R
Survey- skim
◦ To get the “big picture”
◦ Browse chapter outlines,
key words & people
◦ Practice with Chapter 1
pg. 1
◦ To read for understanding
◦ Read sections at a time
◦ Highlight, then take notes
◦ To make material
◦ Relate concepts to your
◦ To read with purpose
◦ Look over chapter
questions in the margins
◦ Make up your additional
own questions
◦ To remember
◦ Review notes, charts
◦ Look for quizzes
Studying Tips
Schedule your study time
 Establish a Quiet Place, free of
 Read material BEFORE you come to class
 Become Active in the learning process
 OVERlearn, i.e. study beyond the text and
your notes
 Find out what works for you!