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Transcript
Biology 358 – Neuroanatomy
Final Exam
Please print your name clearly on the back of every page of the exam, just in case
the staple doesn’t hold. Please read the instructions preceding each section
carefully.
Note: Final exams are not returned! If you want to see your final exam
you must stop into my office sometime while I am there during the first
two weeks of next term. Exams may not be taken out of my office. All
exams will be shredded on the first day of week 3 of spring term.
Section 1: Pictures. Please note the following ground rules concerning this
section of the exam—especially the last bulleted item! (100 points max)
• The following pictures have their numbers—but the level of section is not
indicated.
• Some of the items requested may not be on any of the accompanying
diagrams.
• You may not need to utilize all of the diagrams.
• 2 points will be awarded for each and every structure labeled properly on
the following spinal cord and brain sections.
• 2 points will be subtracted for any structure that is labeled on a section
where that structure does not exist.
1.
Circle all FON on any and all of the accompanying diagrams that are involved
in the transmission of information dealing with conscious proprioception, 2point discrimination and fine touch from the upper appendage. Label this
item on all diagrams with the number 1.
2.
Label any and all examples of the large cell and small cell reticular formation
nuclei. Label these structure on all diagrams with the numbers 2a (large cell
reticular formation nucleus) and 2b (small cell reticular formation nucleus).
3.
Circle any and all structures on the accompanying diagrams that serve as the
primary reflex relay center for the visual system. Label this structure on all
diagrams with the number 3.
(2)
4.
Circle the tract on any and all of the accompanying diagrams that are
involved in the transmission of information dealing with pain, temperature,
and less discriminative touch. Label this item on all diagrams with the number
4.
5.
The fibers of this descending motor tract originate in the premotor cortex
of the frontal lobe, the primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe and the
somesthetic cortex of the parietal lobe and decussate within the medulla of
the brain. Circle this tract on any and all of the accompanying diagrams and
label this item on all diagrams with the number 5.
6.
The fibers of this descending motor tract originate in the premotor cortex
of the frontal lobe, the primary motor cortex of the frontal lobe and the
somesthetic cortex of the parietal lobe and decussate at their level of exit
from the spinal cord. Circle this tract on any and all of the accompanying
diagrams and label this item on all diagrams with the number 6.
7.
Circle all SON on any and all of the accompanying diagrams that are involved
in the transmission of information dealing with conscious proprioception, 2point discrimination and fine touch from the lower appendage. Label this
item on all diagrams with the number 7.
8.
Label the internal capsule with the number 8 on any and all appropriate
diagrams.
9.
Label VA on any and all appropriate diagrams. Label this structure on all
diagrams with the number 9.
10.
Label AN on any and all appropriate diagrams. Label this structure on all
diagrams with the number 10.
11.
Label the globus pallidus with the number 11 on any and all appropriate
diagrams.
12.
Circle the structure on any and all of the accompanying diagrams that has
connections with the contralateral cerebellum and receives information from
the cerebral cortex, red nucleus and dorsal column nuclei. Label this item
on all diagrams with the number 12.
13.
Circle any and all structures on the accompanying diagrams that serve as the
primary reflex center for the auditory system. Label this structure on all
diagrams with the number 13.
14.
Label the decussation of the cerebral peduncles that would be found on any
and all diagrams with the number 14.
15.
Label VPL on any and all appropriate diagrams with the number 15.
(3)
16.
Label VPM on any and all appropriate diagrams with the number 16.
Section 2:
_____
Objective questions about new material. Place the most correct
letter in the space provided.
17. Which of the following blood vessels directly supplies the medial
surface of the temporal lobe of the brain with blood?
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
k.
l.
m.
o.
p.
r.
s.
t.
u.
u.
w.
vertebral artery
internal carotid artery
basilar artery
posterior inferior cerebellar artery
anterior inferior cerebellar artery
internal auditory artery
pontine arteries
superior cerebellar artery
posterior cerebral artery
temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery
calcarine and parieto-occipital branches of the posterior
cerebral artery
posterior choroidal arteries
posterior communicating artery
anterior communicating artery
anterior choroidal artery
middle cerebral artery
anterior cerebral artery
more than one of the above
none of the above
(4)
_____
18. Which of the following blood vessels directly supplies the corpus
callosum of the brain with blood?
a. vertebral artery
b. internal carotid artery
c. basilar artery
d. posterior inferior cerebellar artery
e. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
f. internal auditory artery
g. pontine arteries
h. superior cerebellar artery
k. posterior cerebral artery
l. temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery
m. calcarine and parieto-occipital branches of the posterior
cerebral artery
o. posterior choroidal arteries
p. posterior communicating artery
r. anterior communicating artery
s. anterior choroidal artery
t. middle cerebral artery
u. anterior cerebral artery
u. more than one of the above
w. none of the above
_____
19. Which of the following vessels has a direct communication with the
internal carotid artery and has frontal, temporal and parietal
branches?
a. vertebral artery
b. internal carotid artery
c. basilar artery
d. posterior inferior cerebellar artery
e. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
f. internal auditory artery
g. pontine arteries
h. superior cerebellar artery
k. posterior cerebral artery
l. temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery
m. calcarine and parieto-occipital branches of the posterior
cerebral artery
o. posterior choroidal arteries
p. posterior communicating artery
r. anterior communicating artery
s. anterior choroidal artery
t. middle cerebral artery
u. anterior cerebral artery
u. more than one of the above
w. none of the above
(5)
_____
20. Which of the following vessels directly supplies the choroid plexus in
the 3rd ventricle and also directly supplies the limbic system with
blood?
a. vertebral artery
b. internal carotid artery
c. basilar artery
d. posterior inferior cerebellar artery
e. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
f. internal auditory artery
g. pontine arteries
h. superior cerebellar artery
k. posterior cerebral artery
l. temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery
m. calcarine and parieto-occipital branches of the posterior
cerebral artery
o. posterior choroidal arteries
p. posterior communicating artery
r. anterior communicating artery
s. anterior choroidal artery
t. middle cerebral artery
u. anterior cerebral artery
u. more than one of the above
w. none of the above
_____
21. Which of the following vessels directly supplies the cerebellar
peduncles, cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei and the corpora
quadrigemina with blood?
a. vertebral artery
b. internal carotid artery
c. basilar artery
d. posterior inferior cerebellar artery
e. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
f. internal auditory artery
g. pontine arteries
h. superior cerebellar artery
k. posterior cerebral artery
l. temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery
m. calcarine and parieto-occipital branches of the posterior
cerebral artery
o. posterior choroidal arteries
p. posterior communicating artery
r. anterior communicating artery
s. anterior choroidal artery
t. middle cerebral artery
u. anterior cerebral artery
u. more than one of the above
w. none of the above
(6)
_____
22. Which of the following vessels directly supplies only the cerebellar
cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei?
a. vertebral artery
b. internal carotid artery
c. basilar artery
d. posterior inferior cerebellar artery
e. anterior inferior cerebellar artery
f. internal auditory artery
g. pontine arteries
h. superior cerebellar artery
k. posterior cerebral artery
l. temporal branches of the posterior cerebral artery
m. calcarine and parieto-occipital branches of the posterior
cerebral artery
o. posterior choroidal arteries
p. posterior communicating artery
r. anterior communicating artery
s. anterior choroidal artery
t. middle cerebral artery
u. anterior cerebral artery
u. more than one of the above
w. none of the above
If the following questions are true place a (+) in the space provided; if the
statement is false place a (O) in the space provided. (2 points each)
____
23. The optic disk is the point at which the bipolar cells exit the eye and
enter the optic nerve.
____
24. The inner plexiform layer of the retina contains the axons of bipolar
cells, the dendrites of ganglion cells, and the processes of association
cells.
____
25. Axons of the third order neurons in the optic tract have their somas
in the LGN and form the geniculocalcarine tract (also termed the
optic radiation).
____
26. A lesion in the left optic nerve rostral to the optic chiasma would
result in complete blindness in the left eye.
____
27. A lesion of the complete optic chiasma would result in bitemporal
hemianopsia (blindness in the lateral portions of each visual field).
____
28. The cell bodies of the bipolar primary (FON) neurons would be found
within the cochlear ganglion (also termed the spiral ganglion).
(7)
____
29. The central processes of the bipolar neurons form the cochlear
division of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
____
30. The nerve fibers of the FON of the cochlear division of the
vestibulocochlear nerve bifurcate and end in the dorsal and ventral
cochlear nuclei. The dorsal cochlear nucleus receives fibers dealing
with high frequency sound, while the ventral cochlear nucleus
receives fibers dealing with low frequency sound.
____
31. The vestibular nuclei receive input from cerebellum, spinal cord and
vestibular cortex in addition to FON of the vestibular portion of the
vestibulocochlear nerve.
____
32. The olfactory pathway is a two neuron pathway. The FON is composed
of the bipolar olfactory cells of the olfactory mucosa. These cells are
believed to serve both as sensory receptors and FON cells.
____
33. The olfactory tract divides into two olfactory striae. The lateral
olfactory stria is closely related to the limbic system, and is believed
to not play a role in the perception of smell. The medial olfactory stria
projects to the primary olfactory cortex in the temporal lobe.
____
34. The olfactory cortex is believed to project to the autonomic nervous
system (via the hypothalamus) as well as to the limbic system.
____
35. The limbic lobe is believed to be comprised of the cingulate gyrus,
parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, subcallosal gyrus, and associated
subcortical nuclei (amygdaloid nucleus hypothalamic and thalamic
nuclei).
____
36. The hippocampal formation is believed to have afferent connections
from the olfactory association cortex, contralateral hippocampus,
hypothalamus, thalamus, other widespread areas of the cerebral
cortex, and the basal ganglia.
____
37. The amygdala (amygdaloid nucleus) of the limbic system is believed to
have afferent connections from the olfactory bulb and olfactory
cortex, and efferent connections to the hypothalamus and habenula
(nuclei of the diencephalon).
____
38. Lesions in various regions of the amygdala may results in deficits
ranging from decreased emotional tone, fear, hyperphagia and various
pleasurable reactions.
____
39. Unilateral lesions in the amygdala produces hypersexuality and
perverted sexual behavior. This syndrome is termed Kluver-Bucy
Syndrome.
(8)
Section 3:
Essay questions. Answer the following questions on the blank pages
provided at the end of this section. Be sure to be as all-inclusive in
your answer as possible, thereby clearly demonstrating your
understanding Each question is worth the number of points
indicated. Should you need more paper feel free to come up and
obtain some.
40. Draw a cross section of the spinal cord and discuss the anatomy of the spinal
cord in cross section, including nuclear groups. You are not discuss the
spinal tracts in this question. (10 points)
41. You are called to provide a neurological consultation to a General
Practitioner in a local hospital. When you read the patient's chart you note
that the attending General Practitioner has diagnosed the individual as
having a lesion in the corpus callosum. In order to confirm or reject this
diagnosis you walk into the examining room and give the patient a verbal
command to pick up a pencil that is on the desk with his left hand. The
patient is unable to do this, and therefore you know that the General
Practitioner's diagnosis is correct. Explain how you were able to deduce this
based upon this one fact. In addition, briefly (no more than 1-2 sentences)
explain how you would determine that the damage was not in the auditory
association cortex. (10 points)
42. A left-handed, 42-year old, male professional beer drinker awoke one
morning, following a strenuous workout with his team, with generalized
weakness in the upper and lower extremities of both sides and pronounced
bilateral diminution of pain and temperature sensibility on both sides of the
body below the neck. There were no apparent disturbances of position
sense, vibratory sensibility, or tactile discrimination. Localize the problem
anatomically and give a reason for your answer. (20 points)
43. Discuss the functional considerations of the cerebellum. (15 points)