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PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 1
Use A for True, B for False
Your text promises you that learning will be defined in it.
A consequence is what’s caused by or what happens as a result of some event.
A response is to a stimulus as
a. key peck is to food presentation
b. salivation is to bright light
Because no two responses are identical, we must deal with
a. actions, not movements
c. movements, not actions
b. classes of responses
d. behavior in general
Procedures for studying behavior are experimental operations; the changes in
behavior they produce are behavioral processes.
A modern sort of Clever Hans phenomenon occurred in facilitated
communication, a presumed therapy for nonverbal autistic children.
Releasers are to freed action patterns as stimuli are to responses.
Response hierarchies can change from one moment to another.
In Kohler’s studies of chimpanzee insight, Sultan gradually improved at
solving a problem over successive trials.
In Thorndike’s studies of cats in problem boxes, the cats abruptly learned to
escape from the box.
[f a stimulus produces a response because of the consequences the response
has in its presence, we may say the response is occasioned by the stimulus.
Skinner was unable to train a rat to press a lever only when a light was on.
In the Lashley jumping stand, the rat learns a simultaneous discrimination.
A problem with experiments on sensory deprivation is that
a. there isn’t much for the organism to do
b. the organism spends much of its time sleeping
c. it is diflicult to eliminate all stimuli
d. all of the above
Kohler studied the insight of chimpanzees in Tenerife because
a. chimps lived in the local forests
c. chimps were easily tamed
d. none of the above
b. chimps near towns were easily caught
If you know what “caveat” means, best guess for meaning of “cave canem” is
a. a dungeon
d. help, I’m stuck down here
b. spare the rod, spoil the child
e. none: they’re all equally bad guesses
c. beware of the dog
Tinbergen film clip proved that all red stimuli are releasers.
Which was not shown in the film clips?
a. bears fishing
d sticklebacks fish mating
b. pigeons pecking
e. none of the above (all were shown)
c. dogs salivating
c. lever press is to electric shock
d. all of the above
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Qtiz 2
Use A for True, B for False
By perhaps 4 million years ago, primates that waLked upright had evolved.
Evolution can restdt from human intervention, as when insect pests become
resistant to insecticides.
Natural selection is a theory that deals with the facts of evolution.
Multicellular organisms have existed for most of the history of life on earth.
A kinesis is illustrated by increases in undirected movement with increases in
In the nineteenth century, which was not seen as a problem for natural
c. Mendelian genetics
a. orthogenesis
d. none of these (they were all seen as problems)
b. Larnarckism
Which of the following is consistent with contemporary evidence from
biology, geology and other sciences?
a. acquired traits can be passed on to an organism’s offspring
b. the fossil record of evolution is virtually complete
c. contemporary species are descended from very different ancestors
d. the age of the earth is too short for natural selection
The distinction between voluntary and involuntary actions is equivalent to the
distinction between operant and respondent behavior.
In a reflex, the energy for the response is released by the eliciting stimulus
but originates within the organism.
The expression p(T) represents a conditional probability of T.
Potentiation refers to decreased responding with repeated stimulus
The walking reflex can be affected by the amount of leg exercise an infant
In a reflex, a strong stimulus elicits a response with
a. short latency, strong magnitude
b. short latency, weak magnitude
c. long latency, strong magnitude
d. long latency, weak magnitude
Behavior in which one response reliably accompanies another is
c. adj unctive
a. reflexive
d. superstitious
b. operant
When we study conditions affecting the significance of stimuli, we are usually
concerned with
c. motivation or drive
a. learning
d. elicitation
b. contingencies
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 3
Use A for True, B for False
The expression p(X/Y) represents a conditional probability of X.
Darwinian selection cannot account for animal mimicry, as in stick insects.
Fluent behavior is behavior that has been practiced and reinforced to the
point where it occurs with high accuracy and short latency.
Recove~ of extinguished responding is called regression or resurgence.
The recommended way to reduce a child’s bad behavior is to reinforce good
A conditioned reinforcer is one that’s become effective by virtue of its relation
to some other reinforcer.
An extrinsic reinforcer has an arbitra~ relation to the responses that
produce it (as when the musician plays for money).
It can be misleading to say that an organism rather than a response is
A less probable response may be reinforced by an opportunity to engage in a
more probable response.
In Stratton’s experiment with inverting prisms, Stratton was unable to learn to
look up to see the floor.
In a cumulative record, rate of responding is given by the
a. slope or steepness of the record
b. height of the record
c. frequency of one response relative to total responses
d. spacing between responses
Which was an incidental cause of the change from runways to boxes with
a. it was easier to keep the rats from escaping
b. it reduced handling of the rat and saved work
c. the runway was too hard to keep clean
d. avoiding the criticism that running was species-specific
e. runways took up too much space
Which does not illustrate the role of sensory consequences of responding?
a. visual-motor coordination in kittens
b. wearing inverting prisms
c. curiosity or exploratory behavior
d. potentiation and habituation of the wiping response of frogs
Topographical drift occurs in
c. adjunctive behavior
a. imprinting
b. reflexes
d. superstition procedures
Motivation is the study of what makes consequences more or less effective as
reinforcers or as punishers.
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 4
Use A for True, B for False
Punishment by shock will probably reduce food-reinforced pressing less if a
rat is severely rather than just mildly food-deprived.
Escape by children from demand situations probably implies that those
situations provide few reinforcers.
When rats can escape shock by running down a runway, their running speed
is unaffected by delays between completing the run and termination of shock.
The consequence of effective avoidance is that nothing happens, so it’s often
hard to get it started.
Timeout originated in experiments with pigeons and rats and monkeys, but it’s
now probably best known in its human applications.
By definition, punishment always reduces responding relative to what would
have been maintained without it.
Punishment is most effective when the responses to be punished are similar to
those elicited by the punishing stimulus.
With matched rates of shock superimposed on food-reinforced lever pressing,
rats’ lever pressing was reduced less by response-independent shock than by
response-produced shock.
Two-process theories of avoidance state that warning stimuli acquire their
aversive properties and the organism then learns to escape from these stimuli.
Punishment is to reinforcement as recovery from punishment is to
d. adaptation
a. extinction
b. conditioning
c. superstition
A parent tries to stop a child from crying by spanking the child, but the child
keeps crying anyway. About the spanking, we might conclude that
a. its punishing effects are greater than its eliciting effects
b. it doesn’t have eliciting effects
c. its eliciting effects are greater than its punishing effects
d. it produces spontaneous recovery
Positive reinforcement is to negative reinforcement as
a. increase in responding is to decrease in responding
b. stimulus presentation is to stimulus removal
c. permanent effects are to temporary effects
d. aversive stimulus is to appetitive stimulus
As a variety of avoidance, swatting a mosquito before it gets to you is
a. deletion
c. bothaandb
b. postponement
d. neither a nor b
rat stops pressing a lever when its lever presses produce electric shock. This
an example of
negative reinforcement
c. extinction
d. escape
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 5
Use A for True, B for Fake
An antecedent is what’s caused by or what happens as a result of some event.
Procedures for studying behavior are behavioral processes; the changes in
behavior they produce are experimental operations.
A cat operates a latch and gets out of a box. This is an example of
a. a consequential operation
b. an establishing operation
c. a stimuIus control operation in which one stimulus signals another
d. a stimulus control operation in which a stimulus signals consequences
Evolution cannot result from human intervention
Ontogenic selection occurs when behavior can be passed on from one
organism to another.
When we do shaping, it’s an example of artificial selection.
Self-injurious behavior might be maintained by attention in one case and by
avoiding compliance with demands in another.
Differential reinforcement does not guarantee that responding will fall within
the boundaries specified by the reinforcement contingencies.
When a pigeon’s pecks are reinforced according to a DRL schedule, decreases
in pecking will ordinarily increase reinforcement frequency.
No response sequences are instances of chaining.
You’re in a contest to see who can most quickly shape some property of
responding. Everything else being equal, if you could choose an organism that
would give you the best chance of winning, you might best select the
organism that has already shown
c. least induction
a. most induction
d. most rapid satiation
b. least resistance to extinction
A rat earns food by learning to turn twice left and twice right. This is called
c. stimulus-response association
a. hypothesis behavior
d. double alternation
b. paced responding
In a behavior chain, responses at one point in the chain
a. reinforce responses that come later
b. are discriminative stimuli for responses that come later
c. bothaandb
d. neither a nor b
The case of a male cowbird learning to sing a dialect involved
a. shaping
b. differential reinforcement of low rates
c. differential reinforcement of high rates
d. hypothesis testing in birds
problem with differential reinforcement of variability or novel behavior is
variability and novel~ cannot be properties of individual responses
such differential reinforcement has never been demonstrated
variability is incompatible with novelty
the criteria for differential reinforcement cannot be described
~~~cr,cc ~~ ~
prop~i~jr ~f [email protected]~ ~~llm”d~~.
Trairiilng a feature [email protected]’v’e di~C~;~mina+JGn is harder than training a feature
negative one.
h discriminated operarits, responses are defkeci irl part by tlie stimuli irl tkle
presence of which they occur.
?ksponses arc :G stim’uli as inc!uctiGn is m generalization.
In t!hc stiidy Gf discrimination, physical rneasurexnent defines stiimtdus classes.
To ~roduce disc~~minatiGn~ ~~itho~t errors extinction Sthmu
“1”I ShGliki be
a. earhyr and graci’ual~y’
b. late and gradually
c. early at 5J11 duratiGn and intensity
d. late at full duration and intensity
Reflexive properties are those in -which the order of terms is reversible {e.g.,
if A= Bthen B= A).
A magnitude relation such as greater than is transitive, but it’s neither
reflexive nor symmetrical.
Trainirlg with many specific instances may be a sufficierlt conciitiorl for
creating higher-order or generalized classes.
One way tG tell %vhether matching to-sample q~allfies as identi~yr ,matching is
to see whether it generalizes to novel stimuli.
Anmng the findings that contributed to the controversy over place-learning
versus response-learning was that
a. rats could learn mazes without food reinforcement
b. rats made systematic choices while learning a maze
c. rats could use new maze shortcuts when familiar paths were blocked
d. rats looked both ways before turning at a choice-point
e. traffic-safety behavior had evolved in domesticated cicy- rats
L1se the descriptions of gradierlts to answer the items below (each is used cmce):
a. flat gradient
b. peaked and roughly symmetrical gradient (inverted V)
c. peaked but asymmetrical gradient
CL inverted (IJ-shaped) gradient
Indicate by letter which best illustrates the following gradients:
post-discrimination gradient
inhibitory gradient
generalization gradient with attention to the stimulus dimensiou
generalization gradient without attention to the stimulus dimension
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, O_uiz 7
Use A for True, B for Fake
Teachers ,must be alert for seqtiences in which a student’s errors are followed
by corrections, so that they don’t strengthen incorrect responses along with
the correct ones.
In VI? schediiles, the longer the organism waits the more likely it is tiiat the
next response will be reinforced.
In VI schedules, response rate increases as the mean time betw-een reinforcers
Extinction after FR reinforcement ~pically consists of contin-uous responding
with gradual decreases in rate.
If >-OU exarniiw a cumulative record for scallops, j-ou are more likely- to find
them in FR than in FI performances.
hi 13 RX, schedi,iles, responses that occur before the interval has ended reset the
clock and start the interval over.
You operate a sw-itch whenever you want the i-at’s next lever press to produce
food. You have to know how much time had elapsed since the last press to
iiri-ai~ge -which schedule?
b. DRL
a. VR
d. VI
c. FI
You operate a switch whenever yoii want the rat’s next lever press to produce
food. You have to know how many responses had been emitted since the last
reinforcer to arrarlge which schedule?
c. FI
d. LH
a. VR
b. DRL
‘l’ O-U operate a switch wheilever you want the rat’s next Iev-er press to prmi-uce
food. You have to know how much time had elapsed since tie last reinforcer to
arrange -which schedule?
b. DRL
d. none of the above
a. VI
c. FR
T%e taxonomy of behavior provides ‘he behavioral ‘units for an experirnentid
Use the foli~-w-ing sci~edule names to answer the items below:
a. chained schedules
b. iilixed schedules
c. multiple schedules
d. tandem schedules
e. none of the above
Given A and B as the compoiient ~~hduie~, -w-liic h iim-fies aR appropriate f~i eacii uf
the following:
.: ---- stiiil-ui-uS
A aiici B aherrmte; each operates ci-uring a sillglc
A and B alternate; each operates during a different stimulus
----- -13.
A aiid B are avtilable simuhzuiecmsiy, eackl fur a ciiffereiit rcspvllse
completing A produces B; each operates during a single stimulus
completing A produces B; each operates during a different stimuius
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 8
Use A for True, B for False
References to Pavlov’s bell probabIy started with the common use of the
dinner bell and salivation as examples in the writings of others.
In the Watson and Rayner conditioned-fear experiment with Little Albert, the
US was the loud noise made by banging a metal bar behind Little Albert’s head.
Drug addicts are at greater risk of overdose when taking a drug in familiar
settings with familiar company.
[n respondent conditioning, when a beIl elicits salivation after preceding food
in the mouth, salivation to the bell is the
c. conditional response
a. conditional stimulus
d. unconditional response
b. unconditional stimulus
Which procedure would you use to study sensory preconditioning?
a. light is followed by food; then tone is followed by light
b. tone is followed by light; then light is followed by food
c. lever presses produce light; then light is followed by food
d. light is followed by food; then lever presses produce light
The most important factor in the effectiveness of respondent conditioning is
a, number of pairings of CS and US
b. probability of the US given CS and given no CS
c. baseline level of the UR
d. probability of the US given CR and given no CR
A respondent procedure effective in conditioning skeletal responses is
c. autoshaping
a. salivary conditioning
d. blocking
b. backward conditioning
In conditioned suppression procedures, shocks are
c. current events
a. inescapable and unavoidable
d. negative reinforcers
b. escapable and avoidabIe
Which is probably least modifiable by differential reinforcement?
c. no-vel behavior in porpoises
a. stalking in cows
d. special gaits in show-horses
b. one-wing flaps in birds
Use the folIowing list of types of conditioning to answer the items below:
d. trace
a. simultaneous
e. backward
b. temporaI
c. delay
Indicate by letter the name appropriate to each of the following:
a 30-second CS is followed by a US
a CS is followed 4 seconds later by a US
a US is presented repeatedly at regular intervals
a CS and a US are presented at the same time
a US is followed 4 seconds later by a CS
a brief CS is followed 30 seconds later by a US
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 9
Use A for True, B for False
Contingencies may affect the direction in which you walk but not your
detailed coordination of muscles and joints as you do so.
Common contingencies select the members of operant classes.
Response is to stimulus as shaping is to
c, fading
a. concept
d. generalization
b. discrimination
Respondent behavior consists only of skeletal responses such as movements of
the limbs.
Phylogeny is the development of the individual organism whereas ontogeny is
its evolutionary history.
Clever Hans was a dog that learned to lift a gate-latch with its nose.
When one juvenile monkey learned to wash sand off potatoes in the ocean, the
practice did not spread to adult monkeys.
Social discriminations are involved in understanding another organism’s
Rats can Iearn food preferences from each other.
Rhesus monkeys spontaneously acquire snake fear as they mature.
Both pigeons and chimpanzees can learn to respond to parts of their own
bodies as seen in mirrors.
When one organism learns something by watching another organism’s
behavior, we speak of
c. generalized imitation
a. vicarious learning
d. self-reinforcement
b. continuous repertoires
A pigeon sees blue dots in a mirror, and is taught to peck at the places where
the blue dots had appeared. This pigeon is in an experiment about
c, self-reinforcement
a, generalized imitation
d. self-concept
b. discriminating its own behavior
The mother-infant illustrations in the recapitulation that ended the chapter
on social learning did not include which of the following examples:
a. a new toy chest and latent learning
b. negative punishment and chasing the cat
c. sensory preconditioning and the family doctor
d. operant discrimination and changes in the infant’s feeding time
Response-stimulus contingencies are defined as the effect of
a. stimulus probability on a response
b. a response on stimulus probability
c. response probability on a stimulus
d. a stimulus on response probability
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 10
Use A for True, B for False
In verbal shaping, it makes a difference whether what’s shaped is a
description of behavior or a description of the contingencies operating for
that behavior.
It is usually easier to change human behavior by shaping what people say
than by shaping what they do.
Which pair of verbal relations involves similar stimuli but different responses
(e.g., vocal-vocal versus vocal-written)?
c. echoic and dictation-taking
a. mand and tact
b. transcription and echoic
d. textual and tact
“Water!” is
a. a tact
b. a mand
c. intraverbal behavior
d. insufficient information is given to decide
Which of the following cannot exist in the absence of discriminations of one’s
own behavior?
c. instructional control
a. autoclitics
d. equivalence classes
b. tacts
Human button-pressing may show relatively low VR and high VI rates as a
consequence of
a. differential reinforcement of button-pressing
b. shaping of verbal behavior
c. instruction of verbal behavior
d. contingency-shaped behavior
Which was not a chimpanzee involved in studies of animal verbal behavior?
c. Sarah
a. Clever Hans
d. Nim
b. Washoe
Use the foliowing list to answer the items below:
d. dictation-taking
a. textual behavior
e. none of the above
b. transcription
c. echoic behavior
Indicate the name most appropriate to each of the following.
reciting the alphabet
reading a story aloud
writing down information given on the telephone
repeating someone’s name when you are being introduced
taking notes during a lecture
transferring phone numbers from one address book to another
asking for a book at the library
repeating a telephone number someone has just given you
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 11
Use A for True, B for False
By the age of 6, a child is likely to have a productive vocabukwy of thousands
of words.
A phrase-structure diagram is a way of describing the relations among the
constituents of a sentence.
To classi~ constituents of a sentence, we never have to know the conditions
under which the sentence was uttered.
h[emo~ capacity for sentences is not affected by the number of grammatical
transformations that are involved in the sentence.
Sentences that “mean the same thing” have similar surface structures but
different deep structures.
Listeners are less likely to remember the semantic than the syntactic
properties of sentences.
Adults can ignore metaphor, but children cannot.
Intrusions in free recall become more likely with longer lists and with delays
between iist presentation and recaII.
Ebbinghaus invented the nonsense sylIable to study associations
independently of the learner’s past experience.
In studies of verbal learning, DOG illustrates a CVC trigram.
Massed practice is less effective for verbal learning than spaced practice.
In paired-associates learning, some associations can be learned on a single
The probability of recall of an item is more affected by the delay than by the
number of other items intervening between presentation and recall,
Verbal recognition is a special case of verbal discrimination.
If students who took a midterm exam do better on the final exam than a
matched group who did not take the midterm exam, transfer from midterm to
final exam was positive.
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 12
Use A for True, B for False
Reducing the number of items to be remembered by encoding groups of items
is called chunking.
Contemporary accounts of remembering deal with it in terms of
reconstructive processes, not reproductive processes.
Recall of important events too often lends itself to the shaping of verbal
behavior by the interviewer.
An illustration of rehearsal is looking up a phone number and then reciting it
as one dials it.
A learner’s recall of some items from a list can be affected by an instruction to
forget other items on the list.
Memory for the shapes of ambiguous figures is unaffected by the names that
are given to those figures.
The less the conditions of recall are like the conditions of learning, the
greater the likelihood of recall.
Repeating an item is to maintenance rehearsal as transforming an item is to
c. retrieval
a. storage
d. coding rehearsal
b. retention
The number of items to be remembered determines whether repeated
presentations are needed.
Flashbulb memory involves remembering the details of where we were at the
time of hearing about a significant event such as a major disaster.
The recall of an item fifteen minutes after the item has been learned is an
example of long-term memory.
Recognition accuracy is always superior to recall accuracy.
Level of processing is a proper~ of
c. cue-dependent retrieval
a, iconic memory
d. episodic memory
b. encoding
Improvement of recall without intervening practice is called
c. retention
a. retraction
d. response integration
b. reminiscence
One experimental procedure for studying short-term memory is
a. substituting new items for items not learned on preceding trials
b. preventing the learner from rehearsing the items to be learned
c. instructing the learner to forget some items on a list
d, measuring forgetting as function of number of lists already learned
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Quiz 13
Use A for True, B for False
Instead of teaching things to children, the programmers of artificial
intelligence have taught things to computers.
Concern with function tends to be correlated with a cognitive vocabulary.
Visual imagery is behavior,
Rotating a visual image through 90 degrees takes no longer than rotating it
through 30 degrees.
Functional fixity is an example of negative transfer.
Imagining is
a. a private event
b. visual behavior without a visual stimulus
Which illustrates a topic with which the field of AI is concerned?
c. reinforcement schedules
a. the metaphor of memory search
d. computer programs for problem-solving d. respondent conditioning
Which of the following is least appropriate for describing how solving a
difficult problem can be retarded by the learner’s history of problem solving?
c. retroactive interference
a. negative transfer
d. problem-solving rigidity
b. functional fixity
Which was not used as a problem-solving example?
c. Skinner on finding a suitcase
a. Kohler on insight in chimps
d. Luchins on water-jar problems
b. Piaget on processing stages
Expert performance has been described as
a. contingency-shaped behavior that has never depended on verbal rules
b. verbally governed behavior that has been produced by shaping
c. intuitive behavior that no longer depends on rules
d. verbally governed behavior that has been produced by instructions
In a behavioral account, consciousness is derivative, because the unconscious
has to be there first or there’ll be nothing to be conscious of.
In the history of the psychology of learning, few animal-learning
researchers also studied human learning.
Darwin could not complete his account of evolution without defining the term
Because behavior does not explain learning, we should instead use what is
learned to define behavioral classes.
Which of the following was the animal-learning researcher who devoted the
most experimental attention to human learning?
c. Pavlov
a. Ebbinghaus
d. Skinner
b. Thorndike
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
PSYC 210 Spring 1998, Final
Use A for True, B for False
h antecedent is what’s caused by or what happens as a result of some event.
Newly hatched Laughing Gull chicks aim their pecks as accurately at a
parent’s beak as 2-day-old chicks.
The evolution of populations of organisms over biological time is
c. cultural selection
a. phylogenic selection
d. none of the above
b. ontogenic selection
When the magnitude of a stimulus is too small to elicit a response, the stimulus
is said to be below threshold.
If attention has reinforced self-injurious behavior, we should use attention to
reinforce an alternative response incompatible with the self-injurious
Abruptly introducing punishment reduces responding more effectively than
gradually introducing punishment.
The strongest argument against parental use of punishment is that
punishment is ineffective in reducing responding.
Reinforcement is to punishment as superstition procedure is to responseindependent shock.
Differential reinforcement guarantees that responding will fall within the
boundaries specified by the reinforcement contingencies.
Peak shifts occur in postdiscrimination but not generalization gradients.
Training a feature-positive discrimination is easier than training a featurenegative one.
A rat’s lever presses between 10 and 20 grams are reinforced. Some lever
pressing nevertheless occurs with forces of less than 10 or more than 20
grams. Such lever pressing would be attributed to
a. induction
c. differentiation
d. generalization
b. discrimination
Symmetrical properties are those in which the order of terms is reversible
(e.g., if A-== B then B = A).
A pigeon learns to peck a square given a green sample and a circle given a red
sample. This performance is called arbitrary matching.
First, a pigeon’s key pecks are reinforced in the presence of vertical lines.
Then, with reinforcement discontinued, its rate of pecking is observed in the
presence of lines at different orientations. This experiment is about inhibito~
stimulus control.
Page 2
To reinforce every correct response and repeat any trial with an error until
the pigeon gets it right guarantees that any string of errors will be followed
by a reinforced correct response.
In avoidance schedules, responses that occur before the scheduled time is up
reset the RS clock.
After reinforcement, a pigeon pauses, and then abruptly begins responding at
a high rate until the next reinforcement. This performance is most likely
generated by an FR schedule.
After reinforcement, a pigeon pauses, and then responds with a gradually
increasing rate until the next reinforcement. This performance is most likely
generated by an FI schedule.
Studies of how the stimuli in chained schedules become conditioned
reinforcers show that early stimuli become the most effective.
If every 200th peck produces food, a pigeon pecks slower with one stimulus
present throughout than if different stimuli accompany each block of 50
Variables having small effects in single-response schedules sometimes have
large effects in concurrent schedules.
Observing responses experiments suggest that organisms work mainly for
information about aversive stimuli.
In performances maintained by reinforcement schedules, the concept of
response strength is best regarded as
c. rate of responding
a. differential reinforcement of IRTs
d. resistance to change
b. momentary maximizing
A pigeon produces an immediate 2-see reinforcer rather than a delayed 4-see
reinforcer. This is called self-control.
Orienting responses usually increase with successive stimuli.
Evolution is to learning as
a. ontogeny is to neoteny
b. phylogeny is to ontogeny
In respondent conditioning, when a bell elicits salivation after preceding food
in the mouth, salivation to the bell is the unconditional response.
The suppression of reinforced responding by a stimulus that precedes shock
depends only on its number of pairings with shock.
Rats that have received inescapable shock are less likely to learn avoidance
responding than rats that have not. This illustrates learned helplessness.
c. neoteny is to phylogeny
d. ontogeny is to phylogeny
PSYC21O [email protected] Spring 1998
Use A [or lrue, b Ior t-me
This quiz will be graded separately, but you should use the same OD scan as for the
regular quiz. The passing grade for this quiz is 12 correct out of 15 questions.
21. This is a pop quiz: you were not warned about it in the syllabus.
22. Which is true?
a. The syllabus shows only recommended dates for doing computer programs.
b. The syllabus includes a table that shows you how to calculate your grade.
c. You can be exempt from the final even if you get a low grade on the last quiz.
d. The syllabus does not list class topics to be covered on specific dates
e. none of the above (they’re all false)
23. [f you’re entitIed to a makeup for a predictable future event such as athletic
participation or an obligatory religious holiday, you must make arrangements
with us at least one week in advance.
24. The syllabus describes the arrangements for assigned seating in this course.
25. If you make a mistake in blocking in your ID number on quizzes so we have to
grade your quiz by hand, to get credit for the quiz you’ll have to
a. write a report about the chapters for that quiz
b. write a report on a journal article
c. participate in an experiment
d. none of the above: you’ve Iost that quiz grade
26. The syllabus says messages for us should never be left under our oftlce doors.
27. The syllabus says your first reading of a chapter is the best time to highlight it.
28. Quizzes from past semesters of this course are on resetve in the Iibrary, but we
haven’t provided answer keys.
29. Your grade will be based on
a. percent correct on quizzes plus computer points
b. total quiz and computer points earned
c. a curve based on total quiz scores for the class
d. an average of separate curved scores for each quiz
30. The sytlabus recommends you make backup copies of your computer progress
reports whenever its time to hand in a progress report.
31. Which is false about quizzes in this course?
a. They may include material from earlier chapters, not just current chapters.
b. We emphasize text material but may also include items on class content.
c. We might even ask detaiIs such as names of prominent researchers.
d. You’ll be able to drop 2 or 3 of your lowest quiz scores.
e. none of the above (they’re ail true)
32. The syllabus recommends you read and review each chapter at least twice before
the quiz.
33. To earn points toward ‘your grade for a vocabukuy set, you must score 90% or
better, but we recommend that you continue untiI you get all items in a set
correct the first time around (100%).
34, If you repeat a program on the disk that you’ve already completed and you do
worse than before, you can lose the Progress Report credit that you had earned.
35. A good reason for taking the syllabus seriously is
a. it has lots of useful information about the course in it
b. students use class time unnecessarily when they ask questions answered in it
c. many past students would have gotten higher grades if they’d paid more
attention to it
d. all of the above (they’re all good reasons)