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Chapter 1:
Introduction to
Anatomy & Physiology
Ms. Susan Chabot
•Anatomy: structure of body
parts; also called
•Physiology: function of body
parts; what they do and how
they do it.
•Can we study anatomy
without studying physiology?
•Can we study physiology
without studying anatomy?
Characteristics of Life
Levels of
Organization of the Human Body
Organ Systems: A set of interrelated organs that work
together to provide a specialized function.
Organization of the Human Body
Body Cavities
allow for
separation of organs
and organ systems
Body Cavities
Dorsal body cavity
Cranial cavity = Brain.
Vertebral cavity = encases
the spinal cord
Ventral body cavity
• Thoracic cavity = Heart
and Lungs
• Abdominopelvic cavity =
Organs of digestion and
Other Body Cavities
Oral cavity
Nasal cavity
Orbital cavities
Organization of the Human Body
line the internal body
cavities to reduce
friction and provide
Gross Anatomy – An Introduction
 Anatomical position – a
common visual reference point
 Person stands erect
 Feet together
 Eyes forward
 Palms face anteriorly
 Thumbs pointed away from
the body
Figure 1.3
Gross Anatomy – An Introduction
 Regional terms – names of specific body
 Axial region – the main axis of the body
 Appendicular region – the limbs
 Directional terminology
 Refers to the body in anatomical
 Standardized terms of direction are
paired terms
Regional Terms
Orientation and Directional Terms
Table 1.1 (2 of 3)
Body Planes and Sections
Coronal (frontal) plane Divides body into anterior
and posterior parts.
Sagittal plane – Divides body
into unequal left and right
Median (midsagittal) plane
Specific sagittal plane that
lies vertically at the
midline; divides body into
lateral and medial parts.
Transverse plane - Divides
body into superior and
inferior parts.
Abdominal Regions
Divide the abdomen into nine regions to
reference abdominopelvic organs.
Abdominal Quadrants
Maintenance of Life
Keeping a constant
internal environment.
1. Receptors gather
2. Control Center
decides what to do.
3. Effectors create
a response.
Example of a Feedback
Body Temperature control
is an example of a
Homeostatic Mechanism.
•A normal body
temperature is 98.6* F or
37* C.
•When your temperature
is too hot or too cold, your
body responds to bring it
within a normal range.
Feedback Mechanisms
Negative Feedback
•Reverses the original
•MOST normal body
•If its HIGH, it
becomes LOW
•If its LOW, it
becomes HIGH
Positive Feedback
•Enhances the
original stimuli
associated with
disease or pain
If its HIGH, it
goes HIGHER.
If its LOW, it
goes LOWER