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Transcript
Chapter 1:
Introduction to
Anatomy & Physiology
2014-2015
Ms. Susan Chabot
HAP
•Anatomy: structure of body
parts; also called
morphology.
•Physiology: function of body
parts; what they do and how
they do it.
•Can we study anatomy
without studying physiology?
•Can we study physiology
without studying anatomy?
Characteristics of Life
•Movement
•Responsiveness
•Growth
•Reproduction
•Respiration
•Digestion
•Absorption
•Circulation
•Assimilation
•Excretion
•Metabolism
•Homeostasis
Levels of
Organization
Organization of the Human Body
Organ Systems: A set of interrelated organs that work
together to provide a specialized function.
Organization of the Human Body
Body Cavities
allow for
separation of organs
and organ systems
Body Cavities
Dorsal body cavity
Cranial cavity = Brain.
Vertebral cavity = encases
the spinal cord
•
•
Ventral body cavity
• Thoracic cavity = Heart
and Lungs
• Abdominopelvic cavity =
Organs of digestion and
reproduction
Other Body Cavities
Oral cavity
Nasal cavity
Orbital cavities
Organization of the Human Body
Membranes
line the internal body
cavities to reduce
friction and provide
protection.
Gross Anatomy – An Introduction
 Anatomical position – a
common visual reference point
 Person stands erect
 Feet together
 Eyes forward
 Palms face anteriorly
 Thumbs pointed away from
the body
Figure 1.3
Gross Anatomy – An Introduction
 Regional terms – names of specific body
areas
 Axial region – the main axis of the body
 Appendicular region – the limbs
 Directional terminology
 Refers to the body in anatomical
position
 Standardized terms of direction are
paired terms
Regional Terms
Orientation and Directional Terms
Table 1.1 (2 of 3)
Body Planes and Sections
Coronal (frontal) plane Divides body into anterior
and posterior parts.
Sagittal plane – Divides body
into unequal left and right
sides.
Median (midsagittal) plane
Specific sagittal plane that
lies vertically at the
midline; divides body into
lateral and medial parts.
Transverse plane - Divides
body into superior and
inferior parts.
Abdominal Regions
Divide the abdomen into nine regions to
reference abdominopelvic organs.
Abdominal Quadrants
Maintenance of Life
NEEDS
Water
Foods
Oxygen
Heat
Pressure
HOMEOSTASIS
Keeping a constant
internal environment.
1. Receptors gather
info.
2. Control Center
decides what to do.
3. Effectors create
a response.
Example of a Feedback
Mechanism
Body Temperature control
is an example of a
Homeostatic Mechanism.
•A normal body
temperature is 98.6* F or
37* C.
•When your temperature
is too hot or too cold, your
body responds to bring it
within a normal range.
Feedback Mechanisms
Negative Feedback
•Reverses the original
stimuli
•MOST normal body
processes
•If its HIGH, it
becomes LOW
•If its LOW, it
becomes HIGH
Positive Feedback
•Enhances the
original stimuli
•USUALLY
associated with
disease or pain
If its HIGH, it
goes HIGHER.
If its LOW, it
goes LOWER
•
•