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INTRODUCTION TO THE
BODY
HUMAN ANATOMY &
PHYSIOLOGY
Dr. Smith
[email protected]eyschools.org
Anatomy/Physiology
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Anatomy - study of the structure of an
organism and the relationships of its parts
Physiology – study of how the body parts
work together
FORM FITS FUNCTION
To view – dissect individual parts of body
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Organization of the Body
Organisms are made up of trillions of atoms
Atoms combine to form complicated molecules
Molecules combine to form organelles – components
of cells that do a specific function for a cell
Organelles combine to form cells (smallest living unit)
Cells that work together combine to form tissues
Tissues that work together to form an organs
Organs that work together form an organ system
Organ Systems that work together form an organism
Biological Organization
Anatomical Position
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Reference position where we
can discuss the relationship
of one body part to another
Standing Posture, Palms
forwards, head and feet
forward
Supine refers to body lying
face up
Prone refers to body lying
face down
Anatomical Directions
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When the body is in anatomical position we can use
these terms
Superior/Inferior- towards the head/towards the feet
Anterior (Ventral)/Posterior(Dorsal) – towards the
front/towards the back
Medial/Lateral – towards the midline/away from the
midline
Proximal/Distal – towards the trunk of the body/away
from the trunk of the body
Superficial/Deep – near the surface/away from the
surface
Body Planes
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Used to “cut” a body into smaller
segments
Sagittal Plane – cut lengthwise from head
to toe – mid-sagittal – two equal halves
Frontal Plane (also called coronal plane) –
divides into anterior and posterior
Transverse Plane – horizontal plane –
divides into superior and inferior portions
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Body Cavity - open
spaces in body where
organs are kept Cranial cavity (dorsal) –
houses brain
Spinal cavity (dorsal –
houses spinal column
Thoracic cavity (ventral)
– houses lungs and
heart – divisions –
mediastinum – middle pleural (lungs) sides
Abdominopelvic Cavity –
separated from thoracic
by diaphragm
BODY CAVITIES
Abdominopelvic Regions
YIKES!!
!!!
Picture of
unidentified
student
when she
found out
how much
work this
class
entails
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Axial Region – centralized
body trunk – consists of
head, neck, and torso
Appendicular – upper and
lower extremities
Body Regions
Balance of Body Functions
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Homeostasis – regulation of the living
environment – Biological balance
Homeostasis is controlled by feedback
loops 
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Sensor – senses a change in the environment
Control center – processes the change
Effector - effects the controlled condition
Negative Feedback Loop
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Negate or oppose a change in a condition
– return to normal
Positive Feedback Loop
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Not common – amplify or reinforce a
change that is occurring
Uterine contractions in the birthing
process and the introduction of platelets to
cuts