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Transcript
The Human Body
Chapter 1
Human Anatomy and Physiology
 Anatomy: The study of body structures and their
relationships
 Static within a species
 Physiology: The study of the functions of body
structures
 Dynamic within a species
Subdivision Examples
Anatomy
• Gross anatomy
– Regional
– Systemic
– Surface
• Microscopic anatomy
– Cytology
– Histology
• Embryology
• Developmental anatomy
• Others
Physiology
• Neurophysiology
• Pathophysiology
• Cardiovascular physiology
• Renal Physiology
• Others
Life is an Emergent Property
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Atoms
Molecules
Organelles
Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ systems
– Listed in fig 1.3
• Organismal level
Organ Systems
ORGAN SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
FUNCTIONS
Integumentary
Skin, hair, nails
Protection
Skeletal
Bones
Support/movement
Nervous
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense
organs
Control and
communication
Muscular
Muscles
Movement
Endocrine
Hormones and associated glands
Homeostasis
Cardiovascular
Heart, blood vessels, blood
Transport of substances
Lymphatic
Lymph vessels and lymph nodes
Transport, immunity
Respiratory
Nose, trachea, lungs
Transport of gases
Digestive
Mouth, esophagus, stomach,
intestines
Energy acquisition and
food processing
Urinary
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
Water balance
Reproduction
Gonads
Propagation
Life’s Essentials
• Maintain boundaries
• Move
• Respond to
environment
• Digestion
• Excretion
• Metabolism
• Reproduce
• Grow
Survival Essentials
• Nutrients
– Fuel for the cells
– Building materials
• Oxygen
– Release energy from nutrients
• Water
– Facilitates reactions and excretions/secretions
• Normal body temperature
– Regulate metabolic reactions
• Atmospheric pressure
– Corresponds with gas exchange w/i cells
• Adequate amounts, not just presence maintains a healthy state
Homeostasis
• Dynamic state of equilibrium
• 3 components
– Receptor (afferent)
– Control center (set point)
– Effector (efferent)
• Imbalance causes illness & disease
– Increase with age
– Disruptions in feedback
Feedback
• Negative
– Most homeostatic mechanisms
• Turn off or slow original stimuli
• Stabilizes
– Body temperature, heart and breathing
rate, & blood glucose
• Positive
– Increases the original stimuli
– Oxytocin (labor) and blood clotting
ANATOMICAL LANGUAGE
Anatomical Position
• Standing tall with upper limbs at sides
and face, palms and toes forward
• Reference position when describing
body part locations
– Left and right is specimen’s
– Variations for bipeds and quadrupeds
Anatomical Regions to Know
Anatomical Directions to Know
 Superior/ inferior
 Cranial/caudal
 Ventral/ dorsal
 Anterior/ posterior
 Medial/ lateral
 Intermediate/ proximal/
distal
 Superficial/ deep
 External/ internal
 Supine/ prone
 Ipsilateral/ contralateral
Study tip: pick two structures on self and describe as many ways as possible
Body Planes are Like Breads
• Frontal (coronal) section:
• Sagittal section: divides
divides anterior and posterior
the body longitudinally
– e.g.: loaf of bread
into left and right
– Midsagittal: equal
parts
• Transverse (cross) section:
divides superior and inferior
– Parasagittal: off
– e.g.: hamburger bun or bagel
midline
– Oblique section: diagonal
– e.g.: hotdog bun
cuts
Body Cavities
• Dorsal
– Cranial: brain
– Vertebral: spinal cord
• Ventral
– Thoracic
• Left & right pleura
• Mediastinum (pericardial)
– Abdominopelvic
• No real separation
• Protection differences
• Diaphragm divides
Serous Membranes
• Double-layer membrane
separated by serous fluid
– Reduces friction; lubricates
• Line walls and organs of ventral
body cavities
– Parietal serosa lines walls
– Visceral serosa lines organs
(viscera)
– Named for associated organs
• Never exposed to external
environment
Other Body Cavities
• Open to environment (generally)
Abdominopelvic Subdivisions
Regions (9)
 Epigastric
 Umbilical
Quadrants (4)
 Hypogastric
 Hypochondriac
 Lumbar
 Inguinal
• Anatomists use; references
location and orientation of
internal organs
• Clinicians use; references to
describe pain, tenderness,
and injuries