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Transcript
Human Anatomy and
Physiology
Chapter 1
I.Overview of Anatomy and
Physiology
• ____________________= the study of the structure
and shape of the body and its parts and their
relationships to one another…..large body
structures---gross anatomy
• v.__________________anatomy(too small to be seen
w/o a microscope)
Anatomy
Microscopic
Physiology
Neuron-physiology
Cardiac
physiology
• _______________________study of how body and its
parts work or function in nature….many
subdivisions,like_______________________ and
______________________________
• Relationships between Anatomy and Physiology
• ---The 2 are always related…Structures determine
what functions can take place
II. Levels of Structural Organization
chemical
molecules
• At the ______________________level atoms combine
to make ____________________.
• At the __________________ level,__________are
composed of molecules.
• At the _______________________, it is made of the
same type of cells,functioning together.
cellular
cells
Tissue level
•
•
•
At the ____________________level,different
tissues work together for a common function.
At the organ system level different organs work
together closely.
the highest level is the organism
organ
A.Organ System Overview
– ___________________________________=external
covering of the body;waterproofs,cushions and
protects:excretes salts and urea in perspiration
and helps regulate body
________________.Temp,pressure and pain
receptors in the skin alert us at the body surface .
Integumentary
system
temperature
Skeletal System
• __________________________________=consists of
bones,cartilage,ligaments and joints.-supports body
and provides framework for skeletal muscle-also
protects….___________________-----formation of
blood cells takes place in bone marrow ;also
storehouse for minerals
Hematopoiesis
Muscular system
– _______________________________=Contract or
shorten to produce movement of body -skeletal
muscles-or w/in organs-cardiac or smooth
muscles
– _______________________________=has
brain,spinal cord ,nerves and sensory receptors
as control system
Nervous system
• _______________= controls body through
hormonal control.Endocrine release
hormones-chemicals-into the blood and they
go to a target organ.These glands inc. the
pituitary,thyroid,parathyroid,adrenals,thymus
,pancreas,pineal,ovaries,and testesWhat is
controlled includes growth,reproduction and
food used by cells.
Endocrine
System
Cardiovascular
System
– ____________includes the heart and blood
vessels and blood,transporting oxygen and
nutrients,hormones,etc….wbcs-protect
– Lymphatic System- inc. lymphatic vessels,lymph
nodes organs ,such as the spleen and tonsils.The
vessels return fluid leaked from the blood back to
blood…the nodes help clean the blood and are
involved in immunity.
• ________________-Basically a tube running through
the body from mouth to anus-inc.
mouth,esophagus,stomach,sm. and lg. intestine,and
rectum—Break down food and deliver the products
to blood so it will go to cells---undigested returns to
be eliminated as feces
Digestive System
– Urinary System-removes nitrogen containing
wastes from blood and excretes as urine--maintains body’s water and salt balance—inc.
kidneys,ureters,bladder,urethra
– Reproductive System-to produce offspring----testes male/ovaries-female
Respiratory systemexchanges gases,keeping
blood,hence body supplied
w/O2lungs,trachea…Mediastinumseparates thoracic cavity
III. Maintaining Life
• LIFE FUNCTIONS_
• Maintaining Boundaries-keep inside separate from
outside
– Cells have membranes
– Body is surrounded by _________________ as will
as does the internal organs.
Integumentary
system
• B.Movement. –promoted by muscular
system- walking,etc….using fingers….and
bones provide support
– Movement also happens
as________________________________are
propelled through the organs
Substances such as
blood,foodstuffs,and
urine
• C.____________________-or Irritability is the ablity
to sense changes (stimuli) in environment) and react
• Nerve cells highly irritable
• Other parts of your body respond to stimuli
responsiveness
• D.Digestion-breaking down food into
simple molecules to be absorbed into the
blood,which goes to your body cells
• E.___________-refers to all chemical reactions that
occur w/in body cells---makes nutrients and oxygen
available to the blood and on the cardiovascular
system to distribute needed substances throughout
the body---regulated greatly by hormones;_________
metabolism
Depends on digestive
and respiratory
systems
indigestable
• F.Excretion-process of removing wastes from bodyremoves nonuseful substances produced during
digestion and metabolism-feces from
_____________digestion leftovers________________
• G._______________-Production of offspring
• H.__________is an increase in size—cells must be
created faster than destroyed
reproduction
growth
Urine gets rid of N-containing
metabolic wastes
SURVIVAL NEEDS
Maintain life
• The goal of most body systems is to
__________________.These fragile ____________________
include the following:
– 1-_______________---body takes in as food and chemical
reactions release energy from it using O2.Carb’s are the
main energy source…..Proteins provide nutrients and fats
build cell structures ,a last source for energy and cushion
organs .
Survival needs
nutrients
O2
– 2-________________ is necessary to derive
•
most energy----It is required in Cellular
respiration…..it is in 20% of the air we breathe..It
is also circulated to blood and cells by
respiratory and cardiovascular systems
3--Water-is 60-80 % body weight-most important
molecule in the body and is the solvents for
secretions and excretions….comes mostly from
ingested foods and liquids and lost by evaporation
from lungs and skin and excretions
Temperature
– 4--_____________________must remain at
around 37 degrees C (98 F).If it is too
slow,metabolism stops and too high,proteins
break down…..death occurs at either
extreme.
– 5--Atmospheric Pressure-- is the force on
the surface of the body by the weight of air--atmospheric pressure----Too high altitudes
may have gas exchange too low for
metabolism
IV. HOMEOSTASIS—body’s ability to maintain stable
internal conditions(even though outside world
changes)
• The body is DYNAMIC within narrow limits
• All organ systems involved---examples;Nutrient blood levels,heart activity
and blood pressure,,waste eliminated and body
temp.
• Homeostatic Control Mechanisms:
• ------3 components --what is regulated is called the
variable
• 1-_______________________sensor that monitors
and changes in environment---_________2_______________________-Flows to here along
afferent pathway-determines appropriate response
or reaction.
• 3-Effector-provides output to stimulus---along
efferent pathway----results feed back to influence
stimulus----turning off----NEGATIVE or turn on--positive feed back
Most body mechanism are
negative feed back.
called stimuli
receptor
Control
center
******A disturbance of internal
balance is
called___________________-Source
of disease,disorder,death
Homeostatic Imbalance
Directional terms- allow medical personal to describe
exactly where one structure is in relationship to
another.They include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Superior-(cranial or cephalad)toward head or upper part
Inferior- away from head or lower part
Ventral-(anterior)front of body----front of
Dorsal-(posterior)backof body-back of
Medial- toward or at body midline;inner side
__________________________________________
Lateral- away from midline;on the outer side
proximal-close to origin of body part or where it is
attached
• distal-farther from origin
• superficial(external)---toward or at body surface
• Deep(internal) away from body surface-more internal
INTERMEDIATE-between more medial and more
lateral
Regional Terms-Visible body landmarks----see figure
1.5 p.16----label in notes
• ANTERIOR____
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Abdominal ---anterior trunk below ribs
Acromial----(Point) of shoulder
Antebrachial-forearm
Antecubital-ant. Surface of elbow
Axillary-armpit
Brachial-arm
Buccal-cheek
Carpal-wrist
Cervical --neck region
Coxal-hip
Crural-leg
Deltoid-curve of shoulder formed by lg deltoid muscle
Digital—fingers,toes
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Femoral---thigh
Fibular---lateral part of leg
Frontal –forehead
________________________________________
Inguinal-groin
Nasal
Oral
Orbital-eye
Patellar-knee
Pelvic-area overlying pelvis anteriorly
Pubic-genital
Sternal- breastbone
Tarsal-ankle
Thoracic-chest
Umbilical-naval
Mental-chin
POSTERIOR____
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Calcaneal-heel
Cephalic-head
Femoral-thigh
Gluteal-buttock
Lumbar---back area between ribs and hips
Occipital-back of head
Olecranal-post. Surface of elbow
Popliteal-post. Knee area
Sacral-area between hips
Sural-post.
Scapular---shoulder blades
Calf;vertebral___________
spinal;plantar-sole
____________
______________
Frontal
Orbital
Nasal
Buccal
Oral
Mental
Cervical
Thoracic
Sternal
Axillary
Cephalic
Occipital (back
of head)
Upper limb
Acromial
.
Deltoid
Brachial (arm)
Antecubital
Olecranal
Cervical
Back (dorsal)
Scapular
Antebrachial
(forearm)
Vertebral
Carpal (wrist)
Abdominal
Umbilical
Lumbar
Pelvic
Inguinal
(groin)
Sacral
Manus (hand)
Digital
Gluteal
Lower limb
Coxal (hip)
Femoral (thigh)
Patellar
Popliteal
Crural (leg)
Sural (calf)
Fibular
Pubic (genital)
KEY:
Thorax
Abdomen
Back (Dorsum)
Pedal (foot)
Tarsal (ankle)
Calcaneal
Digital
Plantar
(a) Anterior/Ventral
(b) Posterior/Dorsal
BODY PLANES AND SECTIONS
• In anatomy ,students make sections-or cuts---it is
made along an imaginary line or
__________.......being 3-D,we consider 3 types of
planes
– Sagittal section is lengthwise or longitudinally----If
the right and left parts are equal it is median or
midgasittal
– Frontal section is lengthwise into ant. And post
parts----also called coronal
– a Tranverse Section is cut along a horizontal
plane,making superior and inferior parts----also
called cross-section
plane
Orientation and Directional
Terms
Table 1.1
Orientation and Directional
Terms
Table 1.1 (cont)
BODY CAVITIES
• Dorsal cavity has 2 subdivisions:
• cranial-in skull and
• spinal cavity-extends from cranial to end of
vertebral column
• Ventral body Cavity• Much larger;contains all in chest and abdomen
– Thoracic cavity(lungs,heart….-separated by
diaphragm------MEDIASTINUM-serarates
right and left cavities
– Abdominopelvic cavity--stomach,liver,intestines--(superior)
• --• inferior-Pelvic cavity---reproductive organs
Other Body Cavities
•
•
•
•
_______________
_________________
__________________
__________________
ORAL AND DIGESTIVE
Nasal
Orbital
MIDDLE EAR
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
List the 9 separate regions separated by 4 planes
____________________
_____________________
________________________
_____________________
________________________
___________________________
_____________________________
_____________________________
_________________________________
Umbilical region
Epigastric region
Hypogastric(pubic
)region
Right and left iliac
or inguinal region
Right and left
lumbar regions
Right and left
hypochondriac
regions